1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE study
In a particular society, behavioural disorders are bad, inappropriate behaviour. Behavioural issues (maladjustment) are described as poor or unsatisfactory behavioural adjustment (Webster Encyclopaedia unabridged dictionary, 1994).
According to Ross (1980), behavioural problems emerge when a kid exhibits behaviour that deviates from arbitrary and relative social norms in that it occurs with a frequency or intensity that authoritative people in the child's surroundings deem to be either too high or too low under the circumstances.
Personality disorder or maladjustment was defined from the standpoint of public welfare and safety as an antisocial personality characterised by a long history of irresponsible, impulsive, unscrupulous, and even criminal behaviour beginning in childhood or early adolescence (Berstein, Roy, Srull, and Wickers, 1991).
The meaning of behavioural problem in the classroom scenario, according to the teacher, “is a higher or explicit attempt to give a symbolic interactionist account of discipline problems in the classroom” (Stebbings, 1970). Ross (1980) recognised over 427 behavioural disorders, but Stouffer has done considerable research on those with very serious implications that have significance to the teaching/learning process.
He had 50 behavioural issues that were displayed differently by each school. Although not with the same gravity. None of them are completely irrelevant (Stouffer, 1998).
According to Stouffer (1988), data from the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection show that one out of every three school-aged children is maladjusted in one or both of these areas. It has also been estimated that 12% of school-aged children require the assistance of guidance counsellors and physiatrists (Mukhurjee, 1978).
To acquire a situational report, the researcher discovered an alarming increase of nearly 80% and 100%, respectively, in the number of maladjusted children/youths at the social welfare centre Kaduna and the Borstal Training Institute Kaduna State.
This is because any maladjusted preschool child will become maladjusted in childhood, then a maladjusted adolescent, and lastly a maladjusted adult if nothing is done to stop it at the beginning. Kagan and Moses (1962), Kolo (1992), and Coplan (2005) all agree on this point.
They claimed that behaviour displayed by children at an early age tend to stabilise throughout life. Wickman (1978) discovered a significant disparity in the relative degree of behavioural issues in schoolchildren between the ratings of teachers and mental hygienists.
Teachers emphasise the significance of sex issues, dishonesty, disobedience, disorderliness, and failure to learn. Problems that reflect withdrawing, recessive tendencies in youngsters are of little importance to them. This viewpoint is echoed by (Stebbins, 1970).
Stouffer (1998) conducted significant research on teacher judgements of children's behavioural difficulties in developed countries. According to the literature, such data does not exist in Nigeria. Due to environmental, social, economic, and political circumstances, their research findings cannot be considered to be authoritatively true of our own schoolchildren in Nigeria.
According to Dantani and Abubakar (1999), one of the areas of worry for teachers, educational administrators, and parents is the development of maladjusted types of behaviour in primary school. This is due to the fact that meaningful learning cannot occur if the learner is maladjusted.
Teachers have an important role in the growth of their students. They frequently observe the development of children during the school year and report on their cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development. The teacher's contribution to the growth of the kid can make a difference in any society's future (Okon and Anderson, 1982).
According to Hendrkz (1986), the school is intended to contribute to the development of students as healthy balanced people who can fit into their communities, as well as to curb their less acceptable tendency to become what is known as socialised.
Teachers encounter more children's behavioural issues; they are aware of those issues that can impede successful teaching/learning in the classroom and those that may be detrimental to the child.
Based on all of this, the researcher hopes to discover how teachers in Kaduna state's elementary schools judge children's behavioural difficulties.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teachers have an important influence in the growth of their students. They frequently watch and report on children's cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development during the school year. The teacher's contribution to the growth of the kid can make a difference in any society's future (Okon and Anderson 1982), and Hendrikz (1986) agrees.
According to Stouffer (1998), one out of every three students is maladjusted in some form. According to the situational assessment, evidence from the social welfare centre and the Borstal Training Institute Kaduna indicated that the number of maladjusted youngsters had increased by more than 80% and 100%, respectively.
One of the areas of worry for teachers, educational administrators, and parents is the manifestation of maladjusted types of behaviour in primary schools. This is due to the fact that meaningful learning cannot occur if the learner is maladjusted. Truancy, inattention, lack of interest in working, quarrelsome, restless, disobedience, stubbornness, and sloth are all symptoms of maladjustment.
Because of the maladjusted youngster, the teacher may become agitated while attempting to correct the child, lose patience, become irritated, and refuse to attend to class.
There are over 50 behavioural difficulties of children in the classroom; it is vital to identify which of these behavioural problems impair the successful teaching/learning process of teachers and students. (Blair, Jones, & Simpson, 1975) conducted a rating of children's behavioural difficulties by teachers and metal hygienists.
Due to economic, environmental, social, and political issues, this cannot be authoritatively asserted to be the genuine condition for our own schoolchildren in developing countries. In order to determine whether behavioural problems have major implications, this study is meant to determine how teachers rate behavioural difficulties of students in elementary schools in Kaduna State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The goal of this study is to assess teachers' ratings of behavioural problems among students in public elementary schools in Kaduna State in particular. The purpose of this research is to:
1. Determine the present causes of behavioural problems among elementary school pupils in Kaduna.
2. Determine the severity of fifty behavioural problems among primary school pupils in Kaduna State based on teacher ratings.
3. Learn about the difficulties instructors face while dealing with students who have behavioural issues in Kaduna State primary schools.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
When teachers' ratings of behavioural problems in primary school children are detected, it is believed that the study will benefit teachers, headmasters, school administrators, parents, guidance and counselling workers, psychologists, mental hygienist students, and the government.
It would uncover behavioural issues that could impede effective teaching and meaningful learning, allowing teachers and administrators to use the most appropriate teaching methods/techniques. Because teachers will be able to curb behavioural problems in childhood, they will be reduced to a bare minimum.
One of the purposes of elementary education in Nigeria is for the child to acquire a sound personality, attitude, and morality (National Policy of Education, 2004). Parents will gain because they will be able to spot behavioural issues in their children and assist them in dealing with them. Mental hygienists and guidance counsellors will be better informed, and it will be a tool to help them in their work.
1.5 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
The study will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one will provide the study's background, which will include a statement of the problem, objectives, scope, and so on.
The second chapter deals with a review of related literature, the third with research methodology, the fourth with data collected from sample respondents, and the fifth with a summary, conclusion, and recommendations to the problems identified by the study.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To guide the investigation, the following research questions have been developed:
1. What are the present causes of behavioural difficulties among elementary school students in Kaduna State?
2. What are the teachers' estimates of the seriousness of 50 behavioural problems among students in Kaduna State's primary schools?
3. What difficulties have teachers encountered with children who have behavioural issues in primary schools in Kaduna State?
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study looked at how teachers rated the seriousness of children's behavioural problems in Kaduna state, the present reasons of maladjustment among children, and the difficulties instructors faced when dealing with such youngsters. The research work does not contain a ranking order of the seriousness of schoolchildren's behaviour problems.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Many problems arise when carrying out a project like this, and these problems include the following:
– Data collection was difficult because some of the respondents solicited for interviews were uninterested.
– A scarcity of textbooks, journals, and other relevant publications on the chosen topic, which serves as an impediment to acquiring up to date data on the subject.
– internal and external validity are also issues with the research work.
– There was also the uncooperative attitude of some of the interviewees, who frequently complained about being engaged elsewhere.
– Furthermore, due to financial constraints, the scope of the investigation is limited. If not for funding constraints, a larger population would have been sampled.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Attitude: a favourable or unfavourable feeling towards a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Gordon Allport, a prominent psychologist, has called attitudes “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.”
Cause:- According to the Oxford Dictionary sixth edition (2000), a cause is “what makes something happen.” A reason explains something; the purpose of whatever you do is the reason for doing it; the things you want to achieve are the reasons for doing it.
Curriculum:- It has been observed that the definition of curriculum evolves with time, as well as due to unique circumstances, conceptions of knowledge, the learner, and, indeed, education.
Failure:- This refers to the act of failing or being unable to meet one's responsibilities.
Inability to adjust to the demands of interpersonal interactions and the stresses of daily life is referred to as maladjustment.
Methodology is the study and use of diverse educational methods. This indicates that methodology encompasses both the investigation of various methods and the systematic presentation of subject content and learning experiences.
Motivation:- Motivation is derived from the word motivation, which is described as a pushing or moving force that causes an individual to strive to attain a specific objective despite obstacles.
The scientific study of human behaviour and thinking processes is known as psychology.
Research is defined as the systematic and objective examination and reporting of controlled observation in order to create generalisations, principles, theories, or explanations of occurrences.
A researcher is an individual or group of people who conduct research on a specific topic.
School Authority: A well-organized system of administration in which all members of the school are unified on an agreeable constitution that allows the school to function towards the achievement of its aims and goals.
Sociology is the scientific study of human behaviour in groups, with the goal of discovering regularities and order in such behaviour and expressing these discoveries as theoretical propositions or generalisations that describe a wide range of patterns of behaviour. Its primary concern is social relationships.
A teacher is someone who teaches or instructs others; someone whose business or career it is to instruct others. a teacher; a tutor.