AN EXAMINATION OF CAREER CHOICE AMONG NIGERIAN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
1.1 THE STUDY'S BACKGROUND
When few people could go to school for various reasons and jobs were waiting for individuals to qualify and take, there was little need for planning, either in terms of what courses to take or what type of job to do in the future as an occupation. Because of societal changes, the old educational system order has changed. The modern society is far too complete and changes at a much faster rate than in the past.
The selection of a career necessitates that the alternatives be clear and that the most important factors be considered in order to facilitate the decision-making process. Beginning in the late 18th century, the history of applied psychology can be traced back to the rise of empirical science and the increasing influence of commercial industries' social classes.
This development necessitated the creation of a simple democratically based school system to train qualified workers for the ever-expanding industrial complex. Indeed, the demand for workers in Nigeria was made among those with the skills and the need for personnel to assist in channeling these prospective workers into increasingly complex jobs.
The expansion of vocational and technical guidance by the Boston Chamber of Commerce in the twentieth century, followed by the formation of the national vocational guidance association in (1913) (Whitely, 1984), marked the beginning of the vocational moment in Nigeria.
However, vocational guidance counselling in Nigeria began in 1961, with the establishment of the Ibadan careers council, which later became the nucleus of what is now known as the Nigeria careers councils. There was a general consensus among career counselors that our children require constant guidance in the selection of occupations for which they have no attitude but interest; such students are more likely to fail and experience career frustration.
As a result, we must live in ambiguity, uncertainty, and value confusion. In other words, traditional road or danger signals are no longer adequate. Personal conflicts or other external obstacles do exist to these goals; however, how we handle these obstacles so that they do not become problems requires experience.
Because a guidance scheme can present a problem, the ability to make appropriate choices and decisions improves the individual's later satisfaction and happiness. Many students have gone through the school system without knowing or selecting the appropriate subjects that can lead them into professional jobs. Further studies and any career path desired.
The question now is how we can solve these problems that are affecting our students' choice of subject leads to the world of work in the society and nation that will lead to the development of the individual's personality.
The background study of the College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin, as well as the school of vocational and technical department, is an education that prepares trainees for jobs ranging from a craft or trade to a professional position in engineering, accounting, nursing, medicine and other health practitioners, pharmacy, and other fields. Craft vocations are typically based on manual or practical activities, are traditionally non-academic, and are entirely focused on a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education because the trainee gains direct expertise in a specific group of techniques.
Procedure knowledge can be taught through vocational and technical education. This is in contrast to declarative knowledge, which is used in education in a typically broader scientific field and may focus on theory while ignoring conceptual knowledge, which is characteristic of tertiary education. Vocational and technical education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, and further education levels, as well as in conjunction with the apprenticeship system. Vocational and technical education can be recognized through prior learning recognition and partial academic credit towards tertiary education. It is rarely considered to fall under the traditional definition of higher education in its own right.
Vocational and technical education is linked to the age-old apprenticeship learning system. College apprenticeships are designed for a wide range of jobs, from manual labor to high-level knowledge work. However, as the labor market becomes more specialized and economic demand for higher levels of skill increases, the government and business are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly funded training organizations and business-subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives. Vocational education is typically provided at the post-secondary level by a technical institute or a local community college.
Over the twentieth century, vocational education expanded into new industries such as retail, tourism, information technology, funeral service, and cosmetics, as well as traditional craft and college industries.
The national center for vocational education research, or “NCVER,” is a non-profit organization owned by federal, state, and territory training ministries. It is in charge of gathering, managing, analyzing, evaluating, and disseminating research and statistics on vocational education and training (VET).
Toward the end of the country's 13-year military rule, the Bendel State Government of Nigeria conceived the idea of establishing a new advanced teachers college in order to increase the current rate of teacher supply. In October 1979, a new civilian administration took office, with plans for free education at all levels. So, in order to keep its promises to the people of Bendel State, the new administration decided to establish not one, but two advanced teachers colleges in the state.
His Excellency, Professor Ambrose Alli, the executive governor of Bendel State, officially opened these institutions on May 5, 1980. It was on this occasion that the original name of this college, advanced teachers college of education, was officially changed. On the same occasion, the governor announced his administration's intention to open four colleges of education, one in each of the state's senatorial districts.
The college began with 1850 students and 39 senior (academic and administrative) staff members, with Rev. T. E. Uwaifo as the first Provost. The personnel were mostly drawn from the state's ministry of education and the unified teaching service. Part-time lecturers were hired in areas where the institution lacked staff.
The college is rapidly expanding, and the staffing situation has greatly improved. The college has 23 senior administrative staff, 119 academic staff, and a governing council comprised of men of probity and proven integrity in society. As a policy-making body, the council has made significant contributions to the institution's growth and development.
Although the college was established in haste, with an executive council resolution, the college authorities were guided by edict No. 11 of 1971, also known as the Abraka College of Education edict, 1966, with modifications where appropriate. The college uses a course unit system that is overseen by the University of Benin's Institute of Education. The University of Benin granted the College official approval for affiliation in writing in August 1981 for the award of NCE Certificates.
The College has made remarkable progress toward its primary goal of educating NCE teachers for the state. The college recently matriculated its third batch of students, bringing the total student population to around 4, 000. Courses in seventeen subject areas are available to these students in twenty-three different combinations.
Furthermore, the curriculum has been designed to allow students to spend a significant portion of their second year as trainee teachers in state secondary schools. They return near the end of the second year to take part in a post-teaching practice course that will help them transition back into the academic program of the third year.
It was decided to start a pre-science program in order to increase the number of science teachers in the state. The goal of this program was to help those interested in science obtain the necessary qualifications for full entry into NCE science courses.
Another 1980 innovation was the introduction of a pre-French course for those with limited knowledge of spoken French. Both of these “pre” courses are expected to stimulate the production of teachers in these shortage areas. Now that the college has reached capacity, it is believed that most of the initial organizational issues have been resolved, and we can focus our efforts on improving the facilities for both staff and students.
For the Research Project, the following problem statements were established
1. Determine whether they make their decision after careful consideration of their attitudes and interests.
2. Is the student aware of what career they want to pursue, as well as the various options available to them and their implications?
3. Whether they are influenced by friends, parents, teachers, social status, prestige, or socioeconomic status.
4. Whether a student's ability in a particular subject influences his career choice.
5. Are schools providing proper or adequate guidance and counselling for children's career choices?
1.3IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The study aims to eliminate the problem of career choice among students in society. It would also provide students with useful guidance throughout their academic careers. The right choice of students to discover on time whether the subject they have chosen and whether they will be able to do them can meet their aspirations.
Furthermore, the study will provide education with a good understanding of the student's problem, allowing them to assist the student in making the right career choice for which they have the attitude and ability. This will allow them to readjust and cope with the demands of such a career.
This research will help our policy recognize the importance of our students in society. Implementing the study's recommendations will allow students to develop skills early enough, through vocational and technical training, to contribute to the development of the economy. Because specialization is critical for high productivity, the nation would benefit greatly from the right careers because productivity would increase. As a result, the country's manpower requirements would be met.
1.4 STUDY SCOPE
The purpose of this research is to discover the career goals of selected students at the College of Education in Ekiadolor-Benin. The research will also influence the examination of career options.
During the course of this research, the following words were used.
Career: A person's progress and actions over a lifetime, particularly those related to that person's occupation. Rather than referring to a single position, a career is often made up of jobs held, titles earned, and work completed over a long period of time. As defined by the dictionary.
Occupation: This is the main activity in your life that you do for a living or is a profession. The dictionary says.
Readjust: To become accustomed to something again or in a new way, or to change in response to changing circumstances. The dictionary says.
Specialization is the process of becoming an expert in a specific field of study. The dictionary says.
Technical: Associated with the practical application of machinery methods, etc. The dictionary says.
Vocational: (of education or training) focused on a specific occupation and its skills. The dictionary says.
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AN EXAMINATION OF CAREER CHOICE AMONG NIGERIAN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS