A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF STUDENTS IN RURAL AND URBAN SCHOOLS
This study tried to determine whether there is a link between school location and pupils' career aspirations. Some related and relevant literature was studied, including the concept of career and career choice, theories of career choice, and peer effect on career choice, among others.
With the use of a questionnaire and the sampling procedure, the descriptive research survey design was utilised to examine the opinions of randomly selected respondents. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty) individuals were chosen as study samples.
Five null hypotheses were developed and assessed at the 0.05 level of significance utilising frequency percentages, ranking, and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistical tool. The findings revealed, among other things, that there was no substantial association between school location and students' vocational interests. It was also shown that there is a substantial association between gender and vocational interest.
1.1Background Of The Study
It's fascinating to hear young individuals discuss their professional goals and the reasons behind their decisions. Many of them, particularly final-year students in various secondary schools, face the dilemma of deciding on a future career (Munoye, 2000).
Given their age, numerous elements influence their choices, including peer group, parents' socioeconomic situation, student sex, interest and motivational level, availability of career information, subject covered at school, and so on. According to Mailumo (2001), the issue of career goals and choice is exacerbated by a lack of sufficient career education, also known as work-related education, which he claims is a key determinant of career choice.
He believes that as one of the components of human endeavour, the individual must become aware of and well informed about the world of work.
Second, most Nigerian schools, particularly public and state institutions, have a severe scarcity, if not a complete lack, of certified guidance counsellors. The updated National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) articulates this need clearly.
According to the policy, “career officers and counsellors should be appointed in post-primary institutions in light of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects, and in light of personality maladjustment among school children.”
Prof. Jubril Aminu, a former Minister of Education in Nigeria, described guidance and counselling as essential to the 6-3-3-4 system of education, stating that through its application, students could be corrected or guided to go into areas best suited to their abilities, aptitudes, interests, and capabilities (Daily Times, March 20, 1988).
Despite all of these policy announcements and other pronouncements, most post-primary schools in the country do not have guidance counsellors. This is bad because, with so many professional options based on individual characteristics, abilities and aptitudes, education and length of training, sex, and interests, among other factors, career selection is becoming increasingly complex (Ayo, 1990).
Science and technological advancements have resulted in new vocations that most people are unaware of (Omoegun and Buraimo, 2001). Career services in schools, according to Olayinka (1986), should be an inherent element of our educational system, especially if we want education to be functional, child-centered, and job-oriented.
In Lagos, Olayinka (1973) explored the differences in vocational goals of boys and females. According to the findings of this study, the majority of young people chose careers without considering their interests or abilities to cope with the nature of the jobs.
This, he claims, was due to a lack of proper assistance from school counsellors. In the same line, he claimed that youths, particularly those residing in cities, were attracted to pursue employment based only on their high income or remuneration or for prestigious reasons.
The findings of this study also revealed that girls were unrealistic in their profession choices when their proficiency in particular subject areas was assessed.
According to Anyanwu (1994), when the work expectations of children from urban and rural areas are compared, the children from urban areas had higher career aspirations. According to him, children from affluent families who live in cities tend to strive to be doctors, lawyers, engineers, chemists, accountants, pilots, and so on, but children from rural families who are not exposed to city life have lower goals. Because of their exposure to urban life, children in urban schools will always desire to meet the expectations of their parents and society.
According to Adeleke (1990), the majority of rural youngsters drop out of school. Many of them drop out of school to pursue one or more trades. Instead of continuing their studies for a greater and better choice of professions at the completion of their schooling in higher institutions, they usually become apprentices to learn one vocation or the other.
1.2Statement of the Problem
Without a doubt, when adolescents choose occupations without proper guidance and information on the sort and style of career they want, it leads to unrealized career aspirations and life fulfilment.
Also, when one is in a career for which one is not naturally suited, one is bound to be dissatisfied, and many people have been disappointed throughout their lives as a result of making poor career choices.
The issues of rural and urban communities, as well as adolescent occupational choices, cannot be overstated. For example, youngsters in metropolitan regions typically choose jobs based on information and discretion provided by their parents or the media, which is more prevalent in cities than in rural areas.
Youths living in rural areas sometimes struggle to obtain occupations that will support them throughout their lives. Rather, kids in rural areas are observed to make incorrect profession choices due to a lack of relevant information and direction on employment choice. The majority of them pick wine tapping, carpentry, iron benders, plumbers, bicycle repairers, mechanics, and so on.
This study looks at the career goals of pupils in Lagos State's urban and rural schools.
1.3Purpose Of The Study
The goal of this study is to investigate and compare students' job goals in urban and rural schools in Lagos State.
The following are the study's particular objectives:
i. Determine whether peer group effects teenagers' career ambitions in both urban and rural settings.
ii. Determine whether parents' socioeconomic position effects their children's careers.
iii. Determine whether the child's gender influences the professional choices of young people.
iii. Determine whether the child's motivational level has a substantial influence on his or her job decision.
v. Determine whether career knowledge influences children's involvement in one or more careers.
vi. Determine whether the child's interests influence his or her future professional goals.
This study raised the following research questions:
i. To what extent will students' job goals in urban schools differ from those in rural schools?
ii. Will there be a link between a student's peer group and their job choice?
iii. Will there be a strong association between parents' socioeconomic position and their children's professional goals?
iv. Is there a connection between the child's gender and his or her profession choice?
v. To what extent will students' interests influence their job choices?
vi. To what extent will there be a relationship between students' motivation levels and their profession choices?
In this study, the following hypotheses were developed for testing:
i. There will be no major influence of interest on kids' vocational goals in schools.
ii. There will be no major gender link in pupils' vocational interests in schools.
iii. There will be no substantial association between parents' occupation and students' occupational interests in school.
iv. There will be no substantial association between school location and pupils' vocational interests in school.
v. There will be no major vocational interest among female school students.
1.6The Importance of the Research
Students will benefit greatly from this research since they will receive insight into their professional choices and objectives. The research will help students comprehend the significance of picking a career or subjects that will lead them to specific positions in life.
Students will understand the significance of picking the correct jobs after reading the study's findings and recommendations. Furthermore, students in rural areas will benefit from the advice, which will support and encourage them to embrace the characteristics of choosing jobs that will be very important to them in the future.
The findings and recommendations of this study will help guidance counsellors recognise the reality that kids in secondary school need to be supported by their wealth of experience in order to choose better jobs in life.
Through this research, both the federal and state governments will recognise that a child in school has to be carefully directed in order to choose a career that will benefit him in the future.
The research will assist governments in putting in place procedures that will allow children to choose a career. It will also allow the government to recognise the relevance of the school counsellor in a child's professional goals.
This study will undoubtedly be appreciated by parents because it will allow them to better understand their children's career goals. The guidelines will urge parents to be aware of their children's futures and the dangers of forcing or picking occupations for them.
1.7Scope Of The Study
The study compares the job goals of pupils in Lagos State's urban and rural communities.
Secondary school kids (SS 2 pupils) from randomly selected secondary schools in Lagos Mainland representing urban schools and Ikorodu representing rural schools will participate.
Age, socioeconomic situation of kids' parents, interest, motivational level, peer-group impact, and availability of professional information are among the characteristics to be addressed.
1.8Definition Of Terms
The following concepts will be operationally defined in this study:
i. Career: According to Super and Super (1989), a career is a series of occupations, employment, and positions held over a person's working life. Career will be used interchangeably with vocation, occupation, duty, work, and profession.
Although there are subtle variances, this is what we do for a living. Each career has its own set of expectations. Doctors are expected to be intellectually pure, and sympathetic lawyers to be able to argue effectively. They must be brave, cunning, and have a broad worldview. Teachers must be disciplined and tidy.
ii. Aspiration: According to Arnolds (1990), aspiration is a strong desire to do something great or significant. This is the desire that young people or even adults have to get involved in a particular profession, employment, or vocation.
iii. Expectation: The conditions of expecting something, according to Advanced Learners Dictionary (1980). It is a feeling of optimism for the future.
iv. Motivation: Motivation is the reason for doing or for not doing anything. Motivation, according to Abraham Maslow (1943), is a drive to behave in the direction of a specific objective. Aspiration is determined by both needs and the likelihood that those needs will be realised.