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Women’s empowerment is a human right that is fundamental to development and the attainment of the millennium development objectives. There is historical evidence to suggest that women face discrimination all around the world, owing to the widespread perception that women are inferior to males.

There is ample evidence in the philosophical community of disparaging attitudes towards female scholars such as Aristotle, Nietzsche, Hegel, and Descartes. Most women face discrimination in the performance of some duties, not because of their inability to do the action, but because of their gender.

This essay is intended to highlight and evaluate women’s subordinate position in our society. In this chapter, we will define empowerment, discrimination, and the various dimensions of female discrimination, such as the physiological and psychological aspects of female discrimination.

In chapter two, we will cover the role of women in society, including the family, labour market, and education, as well as the frequently asked topic, “Are men and women equal?”

In chapter three, we will look at the effects of gender discrimination on society’s well-being and the importance of women’s empowerment in contemporary society.

In chapter four, the summary, conclusion, and proposal will be fully expressed. This effort will assist us in determining the worth of women and the benefits of their empowerment to the development of society.


1. Independence

According to the BBC English definition, “empowerment is when someone is given authority or power to do something.” Again, it is described as giving someone the authority or power to act. It means having greater control over their lives or having more power to act.

It also implies to grant authority or power to authorise, as well as to give strength and confidence. It is within your legal rights to act. Being empowered is having the authority, confidence, and strength to act.

Women’s empowerment refers to their ability to control and direct events that impact them. It is the providing of enough opportunities for women to achieve their potential and contribute to the development of nations and the globe as a whole.

It is the provision of a favourable environment and opportunity for women to contribute their fair share to a nation’s social, political, and economic development; it is the ability to mobilise resources to generate constructive social reforms. Women’s empowerment results in authority and power to behave in the same way as their male counterparts.

2. Discrimination

The Oxford English Dictionary defines discrimination as “the recognition of differences between people and things or the treatment of one person or group as worse or better than others.”2 It is unjust to treat someone differently because of their religion, race, or other personal characteristics.

It is the practise of treating one individual or group of people as less familial or as poorly as another person or group. It also refers to the ability to recognise and comprehend the distinction between one object and another, as well as sound judgement or taste.

Discrimination is a sociological word that refers to the treatment of a person belonging to a specific group based simply on class or category. Discrimination is the intentional exclusion of one group from opportunities offered to another. It entails limiting and restricting members of one group, as well as rejection.

It is the skill or power to see fine distinctions or make fine distinctions. It is a treatment or regard based on a group or class rather than individual merit. It refers to any event in which someone is treated unfavourably because of their traits.

Women discriminate against women, men discriminate against men, women discriminate against men, and men discriminate against women.

In the course of this work, I’d want to talk about gender discrimination. Women have been discriminated against in practically every aspect of their lives. Though there is prejudice against women, women discriminate against themselves.

In certain cases, it is the woman who does not want to give way to her fellow lady. Some stereotypical women believe that their place is in the kitchen, not in government. However, we will explore discrimination against women by their male counterparts at the cultural, political, religious, economic, and educational levels.

Sex discrimination is the deferential treatment of men and women based on their category membership, gender, without regard for individual differences in aptitude, competence, inclination, and commitment. Women hold lesser positions and are considered the weaker sex.

They are the recipients of the less valuable (or non-existent) societal good. As a philosopher, Aristotle considered women as naturally weak and licentious. Women, to him, are “unfinished men.”3 From an early age, women are taught that the world of independent achievement is out of reach for them.

And that their primary duty is to please and serve men. In our society, males are allowed and encouraged to take risks in order to complete a project. Men are expected to be rational, imaginative, and creative, but women are thought to be less so.

Women are always under the direct or indirect influence of men. Their bigotry begins in the family. They are expected to be dependant on the males and to do as they are directed or ordered to do, which is referred to as “the act of being submissive.”

They are considered second-class citizens. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women defines discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion, or restriction made on the basis of sex with the effect or purpose of impeding or obstructing the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise of one’s rights.” Women face discrimination in the following ways.

A) Society

Women have historically been discriminated against. Men are thought to be more analytical, aggressive, and focused in success, whereas women are thought to be nurturing, compassionate, better at child bearing, and worse at exciting decision making. Women are considered the second sex in our culture.

husbands act as though they are the subjects, treating women as objects, abdicating responsibility for their own lives. For example, in Nigeria, husbands can offer their wives as entertainers to their visitors. Dobkin claims that “naturally derived women choose and force them to attend to the interests of others, husbands, parents, and lads in place of their own.”

4 society expects women to marry on time; else, she will find it difficult to marry later in life. I came to the conclusion that, culturally or otherwise, girls are like milk that, once split, cannot be scooped up. They are not required to select a partner. Women are culturally desired by men for sex and child bearing.

Religion (B)

Most religions discriminate against women, either directly or indirectly, or promote their discrimination. Women, according to Christianity and certain other religions, should be subordinate to men. “—- and they desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall overthrow thee,” says Genesis 3:16b.

In both Christianity and Islam, five women are barred from holding the post of priest. Women outnumber males, but they face the most discrimination. Rev. D. Timothy Labouf of Watertown Church removed Mary Lambert as a Sunday school teacher for an adult class after she had been on the job for almost 50 years, citing 2 Timothy 2:11 and 12.

Women are expected to learn in complete silence and subordination. Women are not expected to exercise power over men; instead, they must remain mute. Women, according to Aristotle, are unfinished men.

c) Governmental

Women have abilities, potentials, intelligence, brilliance, and intelligence; nonetheless, women are still expected to fill lesser positions rather than significant ones such as president and vice president. They are seen as inferior to men and should be treated as second-class citizens.

They should not seek positions at the highest levels of government because they will not be considered. It is claimed that this has something to do with patriarchal systems in society. Politically, women excel at financial consideration and self-interest engagement.

Only three women have served as governors in the United States of America. In Nigeria, a woman was appointed Governor for three months. None of them have been presidents or vice presidents. They are, to some extent, barred from holding political office.

D) Financial

Most women are today educated, as opposed to ancient periods when women were not thought to be persons who should be educated. But educated women are counselled and persuaded to stay because they are expected to work in women’s jobs, and one wonders if men and women truly do distinct jobs.

But what is the current cause of employment segregation? Is it because women are not considered as men capable of performing jobs traditionally assigned to men?

Women are sexually harassed on the job. For example, the CEDAW (convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women) was formed to fight against all forms of discrimination, with the goal of liberating women from the stereotyped positions that they have been forced into and preventing their development.

Women are economically disadvantaged; nonetheless, women have indirectly contributed to increased productivity and long-term economic growth through unpaid effort, both at home raising children and in their communities. Women are not afforded more economic chances.

Women are perceived to be economically incapable of producing commodities. They also lack capital. This is obvious in men’s dominance of practically every aspect of the country’s economy, including import and export, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and commerce.

As a result, women’s engagement in public affairs is significantly diminished since they lack the material foundation for political and socioeconomic self-assertiveness6.

1.3 Different Aspects of Women’s Discrimination

1. Physiology

Women have faced discrimination due of their physical characteristics. Women are seen to be physically weaker than males, and their fate is considered to be founded in their physical nature or can be traced back to biology. Women’s attributes are used against them.

For example, in Oragite, Anambra state, where I am from, a woman is not permitted to climb a pal or tree due to her bodily features or characteristics. Women’s physical characteristics make them appear less ideal in the view of their male counterparts.

According to Aristotle, women are cooler than men and consequently less perfect, similar to sterile men. Women are seen as having a specific incapacity.

2) Psychology

Women face physiological discrimination. A woman’s mental qualities or attitude is said to be illogical.

Woman, according to Aristotle, is more compassionate than man. More easily moved to tears, while also being more jealous, querulous, and more likely to sell and strike.

She is more despondent and less hopeful than the guy, has less guilt or self-esteem, speaks more falsely, is more dishonest, and has a more retentive memory7. Women are thought to be non-thinking beings.

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