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Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background of The Study

Terrorism, according to Lodge (1988:5), is an illegitimate means of attempting to achieve political change by the indiscriminate use of violence. Terrorism, according to Madunagu (2001:51), is “the use of violence to achieve political objectives.” The bottom line of the concepts above is that terrorism is a form of political violence.

Terrorism has become a topic of concern around the world since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre twin towers and the Pentagon in the United States of America. According to Dr. Anslem Dilichukwu Omenma in one of his presentations at Caritas University’s political science seminar day,

Boko Haram can be traced back to the militia group ECOMOG, which enjoyed the patronage of top politicians in other parts of northern Nigeria, who began to patronise the group through budgetary allocations. The Boko Haram terrorist organisation has had a negative impact on Nigeria’s economy, particularly in the north.

According to Dr. D.A. Omenma (H.O.D)’s seminar presentation at Caritas University, the Boko Haram insurgents began as a militia group called ECOMOG, which was sponsored by prominent politicians in the north-eastern states of Borno and Yobe in the run-up to the 2003 general elections.

Later, other leaders in Northern Nigeria began to fund the group, providing them with large sums of money, training sites on the various mountains dispersed around the region, and protection from Federal government arrests. Menma (2012):15.

In one of his confessions in 2012, sect spokesman Abu Qeda revealed that the Boko Haram sect began as a fundamentalist group formally known as Ahlus Sunna Lid Dawatis Jihad but now generally known as Boko Haram. Since the beginning of this group’s actions, Nigeria’s security has been jeopardised, as has the economy.

As a result, the research is an attempt at a critical analysis to demonstrate how Boko Haram has influenced the economy, either positively or badly. It has been noted that Boko Haram is regarded as a terrorist group that has harmed Nigeria’s economy, particularly in the north.

Attempts will be made to determine how this sect has harmed Nigeria’s economy and possibly recommend long-term solutions to the menace, so that the country’s long-desired peace and stability can be realised, and terrorism in Nigeria can be eliminated.

A casual glance around the world reveals that many countries under this regime have suffered and continue to suffer from terrorist attacks. For example, the United States of America, which has existed for nearly two centuries from the 18th century, suffered at the hands of Osama Bin Laden until he was assassinated in 2011.

Terrorist strikes on Israel, Pakistan, and even certain African countries have made peace and stability nearly a mirage. For example, the United States of America attacked Libya in 1986.

After Boko Haram became a national threat in Nigeria following the 2011 general elections, northern governors who had relationships with the sect began to withdraw their patronage and eventually abandoned them to their fate. The Nation (2011), p. 13. Most scholars and analysts believe that terrorism is a political manifestation rather than a criminal conduct.

As a result, they agree that terrorist organisations all over the world share a common adversary in the status quo, which is represented by the ruling regime, the political system, and the economic system.

In their opinion, the primary goal of terrorists is to upset the status quo or destabilise the ruling system in order to impose their own beliefs on the rest of society.

However, because terrorists typically lack willing public support and suffer harsh government repression, they inevitably resort to indiscriminate violence on a tactical and strategic basis to disseminate fear and intimidation and persuade the public of the legitimacy of their cause (Lodge, 1988:3).

Terrorist acts all involve violence or, more importantly, the fear of violence. Boko Haram, an Islamic extremist sect, has terrorised Nigerians for nearly two years, sapping economic development in the country’s north.

According to “focus Nigeria,” a television interactive broadcast in 2012, the insurgency has caused the demise of commerce in the country, particularly in the north.

For example, traders who used to come from all across Nigeria and neighbouring countries to buy textiles in Kano no longer frequent the market, and it is no longer as crowded as it once was. The investigation will look into how this threat has infiltrated our economy.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The high degree of terrorism and violence in Nigeria by the fundamentalist group (Boko Haram) has heightened worries among the people and the world community, and it has eaten deeply into our economy;

in reality, the animosity has beyond religious or political lines. Several meetings, summits, and conferences have been organised in an attempt to combat the problem in the country, but to little success.

Aside from meetings, the federal governments have spent millions of naira to ensure that security is restored to the country, but this has never appeared to work. The president has directed all security agencies to be on high alert, to prepare their arsenals, and to make greater efforts to promote effective security in the country.

Also, in one of his remarks, the president urges all Nigerians to take security seriously because it is everyone’s concern. But the question is, will it ever come to an end? Can we say that the Boko Haram threat can be understood through the argument that Islam, which gives hope to poor Muslims, is being threatened with extinction by Christianity,

and that Muslim youth who derive hope for a better future from Islamic teachings are fighting to protect the survival of the hope of the hopeless Muslims, or do we see the insurgency through the lens of nationalism? In this light, the following research question will lead this investigation.

Is ideology and funding the primary drivers of the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria?

Is the Boko Haram situation a threat to the country’s economy?

Is military intervention a viable option for dealing with the threat?

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