role OF UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING MISSION IN AFRICA
ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING MISSION IN AFRICA
1.1 Background of the Study
For hundreds of days, the world has witnessed armed conflicts marked by systematic violence and mass atrocities against people, and it has increasingly looked to the United Nations, particularly UN peacekeeping missions, to prevent and/or stop such crimes.
The failings of missions to provide security in complex crises like Somalia, as well as to protect civilians from mass crimes in Rwanda and Bosnia, put UN peacekeeping operations' fundamental principles and capabilities to the test,
Demonstrating the urgent need for reform. Since then, there have been significant efforts to improve the overall effectiveness of UN peacekeeping operations, particularly their ability to protect people.
For a decade, the UN Security Council has expressed its commitment to supporting more effective missions and focusing more attention on civilian protection, as evidenced by a series of statements and resolutions, as well as a request that the Secretary-General issue regular reports on civilian protection in armed conflict.
More concretely, UN peacekeeping missions have transformed over the last decade, with the Council expanding peacekeeping far beyond its traditional function of monitoring the implementation of peace agreements.
Modern peacekeeping missions are multifaceted, addressing the whole range of peacebuilding efforts, from ensuring safe conditions to monitoring human rights and rebuilding state capacity.
Such mandates increasingly require peacekeeping teams to prioritise the physical protection of people. As part of this trend, 10 UN peacekeeping operations have been specifically tasked to “protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.”
3 The UN peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone, UNAMSIL, was authorised in 1999, among other things, “to afford protection to civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.”
4 By 2009, the vast majority of the roughly 100,000 uniformed UN soldiers deployed globally were carrying out such tasks. There is a critical relationship between civilian protection and peacekeeping mandates. First and foremost, civilian safety and security are crucial to peacekeeping missions' legitimacy and credibility.
Missions rely on their legitimacy with both local civilians and global observers to help develop peace and sustain political momentum for the peace process. Furthermore, whenever peacekeepers deploy, they raise expectations among the local community and those who observe missions from afar that their presence is intended to help people in need.
Peacekeeping efforts that are unprepared to deal with large-scale violence against civilians may deteriorate and even collapse, as seen in Rwanda, the Balkans, Sierra Leone, Haiti, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Darfur, among other places.
While missions seek to manage high expectations, they must also handle civilian security in order to establish and sustain the legitimacy and credibility required to carry out their other specified functions, which include assisting with political and local reconsolidation initiatives and peacekeeping.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is currently suffering instability, mainly in its eastern portion, due to ethnic and political disagreements. This former Belgian colony has long struggled with violence and instability. The question at hand now is how to keep peace in an area that has seen two wars in the last decade, with bloodshed continuing to this day.
According to the United Nations, wars claimed 3.8 million lives, with about 1,000 deaths each day as a direct result of the DRC's internal violence. Furthermore, due to ongoing conflict in areas like North and South Kivu, around 2.4 million people have been internally displaced, and 388,000 individuals have sought safety outside of the nation.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is currently suffering instability, mainly in its eastern portion, due to ethnic and political disagreements. This former Belgian colony has long struggled with violence and instability.
The question at hand now is how to keep peace in an area that has seen two wars in the last decade, with bloodshed continuing to this day. According to the United Nations, wars claimed 3.8 million lives, with about 1,000 deaths each day as a direct result of the DRC's internal violence.
Furthermore, as a result of ongoing violence in areas like as North and South Kivu, Katanga, and the Itori region, around 2.4 million people have been internally displaced, and 388,000 have sought safety outside the country.
However, violence and upheaval are not confined to these locations. Sexual violence is the most serious and widespread problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with 14,200 rape incidents documented between 2005 and 2007. Other issues include malnutrition, sickness, and landmine mortality.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has the potential to be one of Africa's wealthiest countries, but it is hampered by instability and continual violence. Surrounded by nine other countries,
the Democratic Republic of the Congo is frequently at the centre of regional conflicts. current conflict is influenced by both Rwanda and Uganda, which have repeatedly attempted to invade the region.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to Master Sun Tzu (1905), “for we to have peace, we must first understand war.” This is why the United Nations has been using force in various contexts and constellations since the late 1950s, and there has been widespread acceptance of the institution of peacekeeping in state practice; however, the concept of peace itself is war.
The dangers associated with peacekeeping are numerous, as the opposition will never give up without a fight; this fight has resulted in chaos, civilian casualties, and loss of life and property; on this note, the researcher intends to investigate the role of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Africa.
1.3 Object of the Study
The primary goal of the study is to determine the function of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Africa. However, for the purpose of the study, the researcher seeks to fulfil the following objectives:
i) Determine the role of the United Nations peacekeeping deployment in DR Congo.
ii) To study the impact of peacekeeping missions on the security of life and property in DR Congo.
iii) Determine the relationship between the UN peacekeeping deployment and the restoration of peace and order.
iv) To investigate the influence of UN peacekeeping missions on the economic development of Africa.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION.
The researcher formulates the following research questions for the study:
i) What is the role of the UN peacekeeping deployment in the Democratic Republic of Congo?
ii) What influence does the UN peacekeeping deployment have on the security of life and property in the Democratic Republic of the Congo?
iii) What is the relationship between the UN peacekeeping deployment and the restoration of peace and order in the Democratic Republic of the Congo?
iv) What effect does the UN peacekeeping deployment have on Africa's economic growth?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of the study, the following research hypotheses were developed:
H0: The UN peacekeeping mission does not contribute to the restoration of peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
H1: The UN peacekeeping deployment plays an important role in restoring peace and order in DR Congo.
H02: Does the UN peacekeeping deployment have no influence on the protection of life and property in the Democratic Republic of the Congo?
H2: The UN peacekeeping force has a considerable impact on the protection of life and property in the DR Congo.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study's findings are expected to be useful to the United Nations peacekeeping envoy once completed, since they will recommend strategies to achieve better results in peacekeeping missions in Africa.
The study will also be useful to researchers who want to conduct a study on a comparable topic because the findings will serve as a guide or reference.
The study will also be valuable to academia because it will contribute to the body of knowledge. Finally, the study will be useful to professors, lecturers, students, and the general public because the findings will broaden the scope of knowledge.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study's scope includes the function of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Africa, with a concentration on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, in the course of the study, the researcher faces several constraints that limit the scope of the study. Several of these constraints are listed below.
(a)Research material availability: The researcher has insufficient research material, which limits the investigation.
(b)Time: The study's time frame does not allow for broader coverage because the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The funds available for the research do not allow for broader coverage because the researcher's resources are constrained due to other academic obligations.
1.8 Definition of Terms
United Nations (UN
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organisation that promotes international cooperation. The organisation was created on October 24, 1945, as a successor for the unsuccessful League of Nations in order to avert another conflict of this nature.
The United Nations had 51 member states when it was founded; today, there are 193. The United Nations headquarters are located in Manhattan, New York City, and are subject to extraterritoriality. Additional main offices are located in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.
Keeping the peace
Peacekeeping refers to activities designed to foster long-term peace. In general, research shows that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths while also lowering the risk of repeated hostilities.
Within the United Nations (UN) group of nation-state governments and organisations, there is a general understanding that at the international level,
peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas, and may assist ex-combatants in implementing peace agreement commitments that they have made.
Africa is the world's second largest and most populous continent. Approximately 30.3 million km² (11.7 million square miles) including surrounding islands, it accounts for 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of its land area. As of 2016, it was home to 1.2 billion people, or roughly 16% of the world's population.