Project Materials





This survey aims to investigate the leadership styles of public primary school principals in Edo State, as perceived by principals. This study focuses on 20 public primary school principals and 100 public primary school teachers. There are two parallel forms on the questionnaire, one for headmasters to rate themselves and the other for teachers to rate the headmasters.

According to sections (1) and (2), headmasters have the highest self-rating on the human resources framework. Furthermore, the majority of headmasters view themselves as effective leaders and managers. Regarding teacher ratings, headmasters were rated the highest in sections 1 and 2 of the human resources framework. In addition, the majority of teachers believe that their headmasters are effective managers and leaders.





Researchers in the field of educational leadership have attempted to identify connections between educational leadership and school effectiveness research for several decades. This phenomenon is primarily attributable to the belief that educational leaders, particularly school principals, influence school effectiveness (Levin & Lezotte, 1990; Reynolds & Cuttance, 1992; Cheng & Pashiardis, 2004). However, two major questions have emerged: first, what position or responsibilities does a school leader have? Second, under what conditions and to what extent does school leadership impact student achievement?

In relation to the first issue, it is intriguing that the vast majority of researchers have focused primarily on studies of patterns of school principals and school leaders. However, recent research has also focused on the leadership of school personnel with other roles, such as teachers (Harris$ Muijs, 2003; Pashiardis, 2004). In order to provide a more comprehensive overview of school leadership, it is therefore necessary to investigate the parameters of the leadership styles of many individuals.

The second issue is more complicated as a result of contradictory findings regarding the effects of leadership on student achievement; some studies found no effect, while others identified some effect (Heck 1992; Johnson 1993)

The meta-analysis conducted by hallanger and heck (1996; 1998) and Witxiers, Bosker, and kruger (2003) highlighted at least two significant factors that distinguish the results of numerous studies. Initially, the diverse educational systems and cultures of the world’s nations produce diverse outcomes (also in Pashisrdis, Thedy, Papanaoum, and Johansson, 2003).

Second, the lack of intermediate variables between principal or headmaster leadership and student achievement makes it impossible to establish a correlation between the two (also in Teddlie $ Renolds, 2000).


Based on the preceding, this study aims to investigate the contribution of headmasters to the effectiveness of primary schools in Edo state. Based on the (Hoy & Miskel, 2001), this work has adopted particular theories regarding these three variables. Second, these concepts are presented at multiple levels in schools. For instance, leaders can be identified at the school level (e.g., the headmaster) and at the classroom level (e.g., the teachers) (Cheng, 1994)

In addition, a school has numerous cultures, including organizational culture, teacher culture, student culture, and classroom culture (Mechr & Midgley, 1996). Finally, multilevel models indicate multiple levels of effectiveness, such as the student, classroom, and school levels (Ereemers 1994)

The first concept covered in this investigation was school leadership. Due to the large number of its definitions, the examination of this concept presents numerous challenges (Hoy & Miskel, 2001). The Bolman & Deals theory of leadership, which examines the multidimensional nature of leadership and, in particular, effective leadership, frames this concept as multidimensional (1991;1997). This theoretical framework is predicated on the premise that four leadership dimensions play crucial roles in effective leadership;

The framework that emphasizes objectives, planning, and coordination;

The human resources framework, which is sensitive to others’ human needs.

The political framework that acknowledged how individuals seek to advance their own interests and

The symbolic framework that focuses on the rituals, myths, and ceremonies that give organizational cultures meaning.

The findings of several recent studies support the theory’s central hypotheses. In addition, research has uncovered new elements that complete the model, such as Bolman and Deal’s (1991; 1992) discovery that the leader’s ability to use multiple frames is highly correlated with their effectiveness.

The second concept relevant to this investigation is organizational culture. Again, the large number of definitions contributes to the difficulty of studying this concept, primarily based on the schein definition. On the basis of Schein’s (1992) definition, Hoy and Miskel (2001) defined culture as “the shared orientation that binds the group together and gives it a unique identity.”

Nonetheless, substantial disagreements emerge regarding what is shared (norms, values, philosophies, perspectives, beliefs, expectation, attitude, Myths or ceremonies.). Determining the intensity of all organization members’ shared orientations presents a further difficulty. Recent studies on educational leadership are focusing on teachers as leaders (Bellon & Beaudry, 1992; Boles & Troen, 1991; Wasley, 1991) whereas previous studies on educational leadership have focused on leaders in administrative positions.

Recent educational reform movements, such as restructuring and site-based management, have encouraged greater teacher participation and leadership in the decision-making processes pertaining to various aspects of school administration. Beginning to emerge are studies examining the roles of teachers in these reform initiatives.

Information regarding leaders who have led or prompted organizational change is also beginning to surface. These leaders started with a vision, created a shared vision with their colleagues, and valued the organization’s employees. Leaders who effected organizational change were proactive and willing to take risks.

They identified shifts in the interests or requirements of their clientele, anticipated the need for change, and questioned the status quo. These traits are possessed by educational leaders of change. In the characteristics section of this paper, the manifestations of these characteristics by educational leaders are discussed. Due to the scarcity of data on educational leaders, the characteristics of these leaders are primarily derived from the literature on effective schools.

Nonetheless, for effective school administration. Teacher leadership roles involve teachers as mentor’s team leaders, curriculum developers, and staff development providers, with the goal of “improving the quality of public education while allowing teachers greater leadership in the development of those improvements” (Wasley 1991).

These roles involve teachers in the decision-making process and facilitate their transformation into change leaders. Nickse (1997) examined teachers as agents of change and advocated for teachers to play leadership roles in change initiatives for four reasons.

Teachers possess a vested interest. They care about what they do and how they do it, and they take ownership of their efforts.

Teachers have historical awareness; they are “aware of the norms of their colleagues.”

Teachers are familiar with the community “have knowledge of the community’s values and attitudes”

Teachers are able to implement change because they are “where the action is.” In a position to initiate planned change based on a need assessment.

Despite these reasons and efforts to promote teachers as change leaders and expand teacher leadership roles, teachers do not view themselves as leaders (Bellon & Beaudry 1992; Wasley 1991).

Nonetheless, the data on leaders of educational change and the emerging data on teacher leadership indicate that these individuals share similarities with leaders who have transformed other organizations. Leaders of educational transformation are visionaries, promote a shared vision, and value human capital.

They take initiative and calculated risks. In addition, they are effective communicators and listeners and strongly believe that the purpose of schools is to meet the academic needs of students. Leaders of educational change are visionaries, promote a shared vision, and place a premium on human capital. They take initiative and calculated risks.


This study aims to reveal the leadership pattern of public primary school principals based on the Rota they pay for efficient school administration. The following are the specific research questions addressed by the study:

What types of leadership styles do elementary school principals utilize?

Does the experience of the headmaster in the field influence the leadership style?

Does the leadership style of a teacher differ based on their experience in the field?

Do leadership styles vary based on the teachers’ prior work experience with their current principals?

Do principals perceive themselves as effective managers and leaders?

Do teachers believe their principal to be an effective manager and leader?

Is there a significant distinction between the leadership styles of male and female headmasters?

Examine the causes for ineffective administration in elementary schools in the Esan West local government area of Edo state.


The significance of this study lies in its exploratory nature, as it seeks to reveal the leadership pattern used in public primary schools in the state of Edo. This research is novel in that it will be the first to promote the leadership style for effective management. This research will provide educational authorities with additional evidence for selecting and training their leaders.

In addition, it is believed that this study will induce self-awareness and reflection in headmasters regarding their headmastership practice; it will serve as a foundation for future research on the leadership patterns of Edo state primary school headmasters. However, it will also be relevant to the education ministry, school administrators, and teachers, as well as all education stakeholders.




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