INCIDENT OF URBAN DRIFT
INCIDENT OF URBAN DRIFT
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
Charles Darwin (1959) the history of man from animals wandering in the wilderness with no fixed home but moving from one tree to another, from one territory to another until he acquired the states of homo-sapiens like Darwin all early historians like Lamarck (1809). Man was regarded as a marvel.
Thus Karl-Marx (1948) began his easy on man in his famous book “the communist manifesto” with the line “in the beginning was man the wonder who went out to gather fruits of the earth, some gathering more than they needed, making it impossible for others to gather what will be enough for themselves.”
As a result of the condition of haves and have nots, the famous slogan was born.
According to other historians, man has always been a mover. According to marine (1990), it is becoming increasingly clear that people, particularly those in significant numbers, move from their homes, towns, cities, and countries of origin to national borders and then return.
Many do so in quest of economic opportunities that are not available in their own countries. Others largely to flee striate persecution or natural disaster. These massive population migrations are not unique to the modern world. According to Maboyuje (1970), migration in the early 1950s also comprises relocation from quickly developing to relatively stationary segments of the economy.
We predict such flows to persist throughout recorded history, given the differences between rich and poor states, the struggle between ethics and national groupings, the fight between rich and poor nations, and the influence of national calamities.
According to Rouch (1954) and Harrison (1967), man is nomadic because he moves from a location of security to a place of freedom for a variety of reasons, which is why we have refuges from Somalia, Sudan, Burundi, Mozamabique, and other places.
Amn, who lives in Awgu town, will also travel to study in areas of his choosing. Some even relocate to Europe, America, or other parts of the world. Man's mobility causes him to return to his nation of origin in search of employment possibilities.
On the other hand, Nigeria's socioeconomic development has been unbaked since the end of commercial manufacturing and exporting crops development, which led to large migration during the civil war.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE problems
Rural urban drift is a widespread occurrence in Nigeria because the rate at which individuals migrate from rural to urban areas is frighteningly high and so uninspiring. It has several issues in the urban area, making it tough for out migrants to settle comfortably.
Rural urban drift is a problem, particularly for urban settlers, because it occurs as a result of “pull” factors that are primarily seen in the urban area, such as the attraction of higher wages in the city, good rods and transportation systems, electricity (power supply) according to Forts (1970), labour enterprises and skills are now marketable in their own right anywhere in the country, “good and sound” education, and so on.
When an urban drift arrives in a city, the welcome can be harsh, especially if the urban drift does not know anyone in the receiving community and does not have enough money. On the contrary, when the urban drift has relatives Kinsmen, he will put up with it until he finds a job and is able to earn a living.
As the urban drift shifts from rural to urban locations. It results in the division of settlements and low agricultural production. There are clubs and organisations affiliated with practically every pastime, from acting and bicycling to rock-hounding and travelling to amusement parks, in urban areas.
Some firms fund clubs and sports teams; nevertheless, despite these heart plans, these are the ones who find themselves in problems because sufficient contingency planning prior to moving to the city is not considered (Dough and Vargh 1998).
It is probable that anyone who wander into Awgu town will run into difficulties. According to Ayles Worth and Bloom (1976), an urban drift has a lower survival rate due to variables such as the urban drift's low socioeconomic origin and higher difficulty in obtaining money resources thereby increased the probability of attention through an interview.
The urban drift also revealed/mentioned concerns that suggested a high level of stress and alienation, such as dissatisfaction with the size and impersonality of the urban area (town), as well as difficulty in locating other inhabitants who were culturally similar and friendly.
Many persons who move from a rural to an urban area have no notion of the accompanying costs and may find themselves in serious financial troubles within a short time of arrival. Lawrence (1984) has identified the impacts of rural urban drift on the rural settler if a realistic budget, which is an important component of transitioning to an urban life, is not recognised.
Over the years, calls have been made from various quarters varying the government (both military and civil authorities) to hasten the pace of development in rural areas, pointing out the effect of rural-urban drift as a serious threat to national socioeconomic development.
However, every indication suggests that the clarion call has fallen on deaf ears of our leaders. As a result, a vast influx of jobless dropouts, semi-skilled, able-bodied men and women have been forced to depart the rural area with its poor, unattractive, unprogressive, suppressible environment, roaming the urban areas in search of any menial work for minimal substance.
The effect of population growth is also an evident component driving the urbanisation trend. As a result, one may be tempted to investigate if the government has been able to restrict or firmly address the problems of rural urban drift. With its concomitant issue? What are the reasons for rural communities' utter neglect?.
Despite the massive allocation of funds from the federal coffer for both capital and recurrent expenditure to develop rural areas in order to stem the rural-urban drift, there is no visible impact to justify the colossal sum being earmarked yearly for rural development in this country, particularly in Awgu LGA.
It should be emphasised that the majority of people in Awgu LGA are peasant farmers, tiny traders, semi-skilled artisans, and dropouts. Who cannot afford a reasonable means of livelihood in conjunction with the Igbo land tenure system.
As a result, adolescents and the able-bodied from the case study location (Awgu town) have no alternative but to abandon the rural environment teeming with the extremely elderly in quest of means of sustenance.
Establishing companies in Awgu de-emphasizes rural-urban migration by providing social amenities in rural regions such as adequate roads, power, and piped water. Because most of these amenities do not exist in rural areas, it causes rural inhabitants to seek improved or better life in metropolitan centres in order to feel included in the design of policy measures that may remedy or limit the impacts of rural urban drift and others.
These solutions will be sought and recommended, with the expectation that if correctly implemented, they will aid in the resolution of the problem. People will continue to migrate to metropolitan outskirts to avoid feeling inferior to their peers in urban centres.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To guide the investigation, the following research questions are established.
1. To what extent is rural urban drift prevalent among the population of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
2. What reasons contribute to the high rate of rural-urban migration in Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
3. What impact has our migration had on the economy of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
4. What are the answers to the rural-urban migration challenges in Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study's objectives are to
1. To identify the extent to which rural urban drift is prevalent among the population of Awgu town, Awgu LGA.
2. To determine the factors that contribute to the prevalence of rural-urban migration among the residents of Awgu town, Awgu LGA.
3. To ascertain the consequences of our relocation on the economy of Awgu town and the Awgu LGA.
4. To provide remedies to the challenges of rural-urban migration among the residents of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In two aspects, the study is significant.
It will contribute to the body of information on rural depopulation.
In practise, the study is significant since it will raise awareness among the residents of Awgu town about the negative consequences of out-migration.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Rurality or rural dwellers: These are people who live in villages and work primarily in agriculture.
2. urban dwellers: These are people who reside in a town or city.
3. Rural-urban migration: This is the movement of people from rural to urban areas in quest of greener pastures.
4. Urbanism: The particular quality of human society that is a unique method of existence or way of life that is characteristic of the city. This demonstrates that the quality of life in cities and rural areas differs.
5. Urbanisation: This is described as the spread of urban centres into rural areas. It refers to the process of people moving into cities and the subsequent growth of city buildings. Typically, the urbanisation process results in the formation and expansion of cities.
6. industrialization: The process of increasing a country's productive capacity to process raw resources and produce goods and services for consumption and subsequent production.
It also includes the provision of fundamental infrastructure within a country, such as power, water, and transportation services, so that people may meet the majority of their basic needs, achieve full employment, and be self-sufficient.
7. Urban pathology: Is concerned with the major health problems that urban people experience as a result of insufficient safe water supply, poor housing, poor sanitary conditions, pollution, poverty, and a poor transportation system, among other things.