IMPACT OF drug ABUSE ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
IMPACT OF DRUG ABUSE ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
1.1 Background Of The study
According to a World Health Organisation survey, young people are exposed to alcohol at multiple levels of society, most notably through advertising and peer pressure. As a result, dangerous drinking behaviours among adolescents and other youth are on the rise.
In a World Health Organisation (WHO) survey on alcohol and health, 71 percent of the 73 nations reported an increase in underage drinking in the previous five years. And vulnerable young people, such as street youth and sex hawkers, are far more likely than the general young population to start drinking early and use drugs frequently.
Many of the negative consequences of alcohol use, such as drug-related accidents and injuries, alcohol-fueled homicide and suicide, drug dependence, and alcohol poisoning, have been well documented. This fact sheet discusses the effects of drug use on young people's sexual and reproductive health.
It also discusses policies and programmes targeted at reducing youth alcohol use and its harmful repercussions, as well as programmatic responses to drug use and misuse.
Drug abuse is defined as an excessive need to get and use an increasing amount of one or more substances, such as alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cigarettes, codeine, and other substances that are damaging to the individual's health. When discussing drug abuse, it is important to distinguish it from drug dependency or addiction, which is the physical reliance on drugs to operate.
Despite the unwavering efforts of individuals, organisations, the media, and the government at all levels to combat drug misuse, the prevalence of the practise among secondary school children and even adults in the community has not decreased but has increased geometrically.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines a drug as any substance other than those required for normal health maintenance that, when introduced into a living organism, can alter one or more of its activities (Ghodse, 2003).
According to a United Nations Office on narcotics and Crime (UNODC) Report (2005), around 200 million people, or 5% of the world's population aged 15 to 65, have used narcotics at least once in the previous year. Similarly, the World Drug Report (2005) stated that the use of illicit drugs has increased in all countries in recent years.
The research goes on to say that the increased availability of a wide range of drugs to a growing socioeconomic spectrum of consumers is concerning, even while the major problem at the worldwide level remains opiates (particularly heroin), followed by cocaine.Drug misuse and other related issues are harmful to human cultures' survival and effectiveness.
A considerable number of health risks, early deaths, and accidents have been connected to the activities of people who are high on one or more drugs.Over the last two decades, drug abuse in Kenya has skyrocketed to unprecedented proportions, with no part of the country immune to the scourge (Ngesu et al, 2008).
Many people have defined drug abuse in various ways, ignoring its actual causes. In medicine, a medication is any material that has the potential to prevent or treat disease. Drugs can be both lawful and illicit. Non-medical drug use is referred to as drug abuse.
The reproductive system is made up of organs that are responsible for the creation of progeny. The female reproductive system produces female reproductive cells (the eggs, or ova) and has an organ (uterus) where the foetus develops; the male reproductive system produces male reproductive cells (the sperm) and has an organ (penis) where the sperm is deposited within the female.
The vulva (which means “covering” in Latin) refers to the exterior female reproductive organs as a whole. The vulva protects the urethral and vaginal openings and is highly sensitive to touch in order to improve female pleasure during sexual arousal (Coad & Dunstall, 2005).
The vulva is made up of structures such as the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule structures, and the perineum.
The testes are located inside a bag-like structure called the scrotum in the male reproductive system. It is suspended outside the male's body cavity, keeping the testes slightly colder than the rest of the body.
The average human body temperature is too high for sperm production. Sperm production is enabled by the colder temperature in the scrotum.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although alcohol and cigarettes are said to be legal, they have also led to the introduction of more potent drugs such as heroin and cocaine. Drug abuse has resulted in a number of health difficulties and dangers in today's culture.
Miscarriages, mental disease, lung cancer, cultism, gangsters, rape cases, and even juvenile delinquency are examples. The alarming prevalence of drug use in southern IjawL.G.A is very high, and the consequences are severe.
As a result, the purpose of this study is to look into the effects of family background, peer groups, and family cohesion on reproductive health among men and women in Bayelsa State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study's overarching goal is to investigate the influence of drug abuse on reproductive health in the southern Ijaw L.G.A of Bayelsa State. Among the specific goals are the following:
i) To investigate the reasons of drug abuse among the southern Ijaw people of Bayelsa State.
ii) To assess the impact of drug misuse on the reproductive health of pregnant women in southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.
iii) Determine whether there is a significant association between drug use and a woman's reproductive health.
iv) Determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the reasons of drug abuse between men and women in Southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HO: There is no significant link between drug use and reproductive health in women.
H1: There is a strong link between drug use and a woman's reproductive health.
In Southern Ijaw L.G.A., there is no significant effect of drug consumption on the reproductive health of pregnant women.
H2: Drug misuse has a major impact on the reproductive health of pregnant women in Southern Ijaw L.G.A.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study are expected to be extremely beneficial to married men and women, as they will act as a means of limiting the effects of medicines on their reproductive system.
The findings will be useful to people who desire to do similar research because they have contributed to the current literature. Finally, the research will be useful to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and other relevant organisations in combating drug abuse and addiction on our campuses.
1.6 SCOPE AND limitations OF STUDY
This study looked at the consequences of drug misuse on the health of the southern people of Ijaw, Bayelsa State, in connection to their family background, family cohesion, peer group influence, and reproductive system. During the course of the study, the researcher encountered some constraints such as;
Time constraint: The researcher will conduct this investigation alongside other academic activities. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Financial constraint: A lack of funds tends to restrict the researcher's efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection procedure (internet, questionnaire, and interview).
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A drug is any chemical (other than food that gives nutritional support) that induces a physiological change in the body whether inhaled, injected, smoked, digested, absorbed through a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue.
Abuse is the wrong use or handling of an entity, often to acquire an unfair or improper advantage.
Drug Dependence: medication dependence, also known as substance dependency, is an adaptive state that develops as a result of recurrent drug administration and resulting in withdrawal when the medication is stopped.
lawful drugs are intoxicating chemicals that are either totally lawful or not generally restricted by various drug regulations. They are sometimes known as legal intoxicants or, more colloquially, as legal highs.
prohibited drugs are drugs that have restrictions on their possession or use imposed by the government and are prohibited in certain instances (meaning a person is not permitted to possess them).
Stimulants: Stimulants, also known as psych-stimulants, are a broad category of medicines that include those that stimulate body activity, those that are enjoyable and invigorating, and those that have sympathomimetic effects.
Inhalants are a class of household and industrial chemicals in which volatile vapours or pressurised gases are condensed and breathed in via the nose or mouth to create intoxication (known colloquially as “getting high”) in ways not intended by the manufacturer.
The reproductive system, often known as the genital system, is a group of sex organs within an organism that work together to reproduce sexually. Many non-living substances, such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones, are also important reproductive system components.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH
This research paper is divided into five chapters for easy comprehension. The first chapter is concerned with the introduction, which includes the (overview of the study), issue statement, objectives of the investigation, research question, significance of the study, research methodology, definition of words, and historical backdrop of the study.
The second chapter highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, as well as a survey of related literature. The third chapter discusses the study's research strategy and methodology.
The fourth chapter focuses on data gathering, analysis, and presenting of findings. The fifth chapter contains the study's summary, conclusion, and recommendations.