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Chapter one

1.1 Introduction

Health is the ability to carry out one’s duties or activities. It allows us to better understand what we are capable of achieving for society as a whole.

Inadequate health contributed directly to redaction in productivity and loss of payment for individuals, with disastrous consequences for the dependent class.

The basic diagnostic point that good health is an integral part of development has thus come to centre stage in development thinking; this point is due to the fact that only healthy people can earn income, afford and seek medical care for themselves and their families, have better nutrition and exp

It is important to note that in order to sustain our global environment and improve the quality of life in our human settlements, we must commit to sustainable patterns of production, consumption, transportation, and settlement development, as well as pollution prevention, respect for the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, and the preservation of opportunities for future generations.

In this regard, there has been an increasing push to examine the relationship between health and economic growth; this idea was prompted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) report on health (1999). Dr. Chris Mwrska (2005) remarks on poverty reduction and long-term economic prosperity.

Based on this argument, the World Health Organisation (WHO) urges African governments and their partners to create national development plans that can provide opportunities for innovative health and poverty reduction reforms during post-war or crisis reconstruction, as well as the emergence of new democracies.

In its updated health for all strategy, the organisation emphasised that, in addition to establishing a sustainable health system, all organisation efforts to improve health must prioritise development by combatting poverty and harmonising sectoral health programmes (Lipson 1996, Lius et al., 1997).

As development paradigms shift from a focus on economic growth to a focus on poverty and local ownership, health outcomes have gained recognition in national development programmes, and civil society participation has been identified as the most important single factor in development (Wolfenson, 1999; World Bank 2000).

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a committee on macroeconomics and health (CMH) to conduct the necessary examination of how health is linked to macroeconomics and development challenges.

Health indicators are critical components of economic development, particularly in poor nations.Health indices account for changes in both quality of life (QOL) and life expectancy (LIFEPEC).

Health indices such as quality of life and life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR), disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE), material mortality rate (MMR), death indicators, or health indicators of an economy are addressed through three basic health sectors:

secondary health care, primary health care, and tertiary health care.All of these sectors, through their functions, provide necessary measures to enhance the nation’s work force and, as a result, the country’s production. As a result, health indices in Nigeria must be evaluated as key elements in the country’s economic development.

1.2 Background of the Study

Available materials are not necessarily dependable, accurate, or reputable in addressing Nigeria’s top public health concern.These resources are inaccurate and insufficient to make value judgements regarding Nigeria’s health problems. Demographic statistics such as censuses, health surveys, and so on are untrustworthy.

However, the United Nations estimates that Nigeria accounts for around 20% of Africa’s population and receives more than half of all African investment (Chinsmnan, 1998).

Despite significant economic progress and social advancement over the last thirty years, there is still much human suffering, and setting a development agenda that meets the needs of its citizens in a cost-effective and equitable manner is critical.

Approximately 48.50/0 of Nigeria’s population lives in absolute poverty (defined as earning less than S 1.00 per day), with approximately 80% of the poor residing in rural areas (UNDP 1998).

Nigeria’s gross national product (GNP) fell from S1.00 in 1980 to S260 in 1995, placing it among the world’s 20 poorest countries (UNDP 1998).

In 1980, Nigeria had a quality of life index of 38%, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), while the human development index (HDI) for 2000 ranked Nigeria 151 out of 174 countries, trailing only Cameroun.Gambia, Ghana, and Zambia are missing their national and human resources.

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