EUROPEAN UNION AND THE AFRICAN MIGRANTS: DILEMMA OF BALANCING SECURITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
This study examines the EU's response to the rising number of African migrants in light of human rights principles, assessing whether the EU's policy and practical measures are consistent with the international obligation under human rights law to protect African migrants.
The report also examines how Africa's economic, social, and political conditions have driven Africans to become immigrants. This article explores the EU's migration security concerns and its growing relationship with African migrants. To investigate these issues, the study employed qualitative research methods.
Data were acquired from both primary and secondary sources. The available literature was extensively researched to investigate the recent linked themes of migration, security, and human rights trends in Europe, with a focus on African migrants.
Furthermore, key informant interviews were conducted with various scholars and officials from the Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign affairs, the African Union, and various personnel from institutions such as the Institute for Peace and Security Studies, the Centre for Human Rights Studies, and the Institute of Security Studies.
Africans migrate to Europe for a variety of reasons. Their reasons range from economic stagnation in their own countries to political persecution, human rights violations, and intra and interstate disputes.
In Europe, migration is increasingly considered as a security concern, with EU countries adopting a “more restrictive approach” to third-country migrants. The EU presently has a difficulty in protecting migrants' human rights through migration policies.
The findings of this study reveal that the EU's policies to African migrants contradict globally acknowledged human rights standards. The EU's border control patrols deny migrants entry without inspecting their cases.
The treatment of migrants during transfer to “third states” and the conditions of detention centres contradict international norms regarding migrants' human rights.
Furthermore, FRONTEX's externalisation policy and methodology frequently contradict “movement-related rights” as defined in articles 13(1) of the UDHR and 12(2) of the ICCPR.
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study.
Migration has been an element of human life from antiquity to the current day. Our earliest ancestors were likely nomadic and hunted big wildlife before becoming fully human. Hunting groups quickly populated all continents (excluding Antarctica) within 50,000 years, demonstrating their proclivity.
Migration has always been a part of human history, but it has never played as important a role as it has in the last half-century, when more people have chosen or been forced to migrate than ever before.
Today, there is unparalleled human movement both within and beyond national borders. Human mobility remains a major theme in the 21st century.
The geography of migration has changed for a variety of reasons. For example, Europe transitioned from a land of emigrants to one of immigrants. Between 1500 and the mid-twentieth century,
Europeans were major emigrants, with millions migrating to America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Africa. In contrast, by the late twentieth century,
the steady flow had practically ended, and Europe had become a destination for migrants from the Middle East, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. Several factors are attributed to these changes, such as growing economic inequalities between rich and poor nations;
demographic patterns such as slow-growing, ageing populations in developed states and younger, fast-growing populations in Africa, Latin America, and South Asia;
ethnic hostility and political unrests in many parts of the world; cheaper and faster modes of transportation; new technologies that allow for instant communication between immigrants