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The goal of this research is to determine the elements influencing the Niger Delta issue and its implications for Nigeria’s sociopolitical growth. The report went on to assess the magnitude of the damage the Niger Delta Crisis has caused to the nation’s political growth.

The crisis poses a threat to both domestic and foreign investors. After conducting numerous investigations and analysing the Niger Delta problem,

the researcher determined that the situation is the result of a high level of neglect of oil drilling areas. The researcher does, however, provide some recommendations for how to fix the Niger Delta dilemma.

Chapter one


1.1 Background of the Study

The Niger Delta region is located in southern Nigeria. Swamps and dense rainforest characterise the region, through which the Niger River flows into the Atlantic Ocean via various estuaries. Nigeria’s wealth is concentrated in the Niger Delta region.

It represents the country’s economic heartbeat, with petroleum, often known as the valuable black gold, accounting for more than 90% of the country’s earnings. For more than five decades, all of the country’s oil exploration and exploitation has occurred in this region.

As expected, the inhabitants of this region primarily work in agriculture and fishing, taking use of the lush rainforest and big body of water.

According to Abati (2009:54), Nigeria Delta refers to the states of Cross River, Ondo, Imo, Abia, Edo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Akwa Ibom, and Delta, but specifically the final four states, which face more unique challenges. It is one of the world’s largest wetlands, and clearly the largest in Africa.

It is common knowledge that oil is crucial to the globe as a primary source of energy. Anywhere in the world where a vehicle’s tank is filled with petrol, an engine is run with diesel or any other fuel, a lantern or store is filled with kerosene, or any petroleum-based product is used,

there is a link to a complex process that includes exploration, refining, high-tech engineering and technology, human and material resources, national politics and human rights and expectations.

Nigeria is at the core of this process, as the world’s sixth largest oil producer and Africa’s largest.

Although oil was discovered in Nigeria in 1908, commercial exploration did not begin until March 1957, when oil was discovered in Olobiri (now in Bayelsa State).

Nigeria’s inability to develop local capacity in oil exploration and acquire the necessary technology has made it possible for multinational corporations to enter into joint venture partnerships with it in order to avoid lopsided contractual agreements.

Nigeria is well conscious of its importance as an oil producing country, and practically all of the country’s wealth over the last fifty years (50 years) or so has come from oil.

Prior to the discovery of oil in the Niger Delta, each region in Nigeria had a means of creating revenue for regional development. There was intense competition between the regions to determine which would outperform the other in terms of development.

However, the discovery of oil and the subsequent oil boom brought an abrupt end to this, as everyone in Nigeria want a piece of the national cake.

In the 1963 constitution, derivation was 50%, while the federal government received just 30%. The same constitution established regional ownership of the continental shelf. By 1966, this had been constructively abandoned, and control of Nigeria’s oil resources had become the federal government’s obsession.

The civil war highlighted the strategic importance of the Niger Delta’s oil resources, and as the military gained power and politics, controlling oil and money became a significant task. In 1970, derivation had been lowered to 45 percent.

In 1975, it was further cut to 25%. In 1981, the shagari administration reduced it to 5%. It then fell to three percent (3%) during the Babangida regime.

In response to protests from oil-producing towns, the 1999 constitution fixed derivation at thirteen percent (13%).

Based on this development, youths in Obokafia, a community in the Niger Delta region, rose up with arms to fight for their people’s emancipation. In order to achieve the goals of their struggle, various militia groups arose; however, these groups resorted to violence rather than demands.

Since the violence or crisis ended, the political situation has been tense. Komolate (2009:72) in his input on the crisis in Niger Delta region assets:

Deaths are counted in the dozen, and displaced areas are featured in thousands of newspapers, along with photos of helpless children, elderly men, and women who have been displaced. These defenders are fleeing the sports where soldiers are fighting militants.

The argument above indicates the growing threat to the security of Niger Delta residents. What the teenagers allege is a struggle for their people’s independence has devolved into criminal activity such as kidnapping of expat labour. Schoolchildren, parents, politicians, and pipeline canalization.

In truth, living in the Niger Delta is getting increasingly difficult as the means of subsistence diminish with the passage of time. The indigenous people of this region, particularly the Ogonis, Ijaws, and Ibibios, have and continue to protest their horrible living conditions.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The high crime rate in the Niger Delta region cannot be overstated, since lives and property are lost every day. People are kidnapped and demanding a ransom before being released.

People kidnapped by hostile Niger Delta youths are usually slain if the ransom is not paid. As a result, businesses now prefer to close and go to other nations, leaving some Nigerians unemployed.

Again, tensions in this geopolitical part of the country have resulted in school dropouts. Most young people now choose to join any group that specialises in abduction and so makes money.

Insecurity is also prevalent as a result of the Niger Delta situation. People today live in terror due to the presence of several militia organisations that are aware of the potential for quick money through enmity, regardless of the amnesty provided to militants.


The study’s aims are:

a. To highlight the problems of the Niger Delta region.

b. How the Niger Delta issue influenced the region’s and Nigeria’s overall sociopolitical and economic development.

c. Determine the level of damage caused by the crisis in the Niger Delta region.

d. Evaluate the impact of this crisis on the economy and its implications for the region’s educational system.


The research questions for this study are as follows:

1. What variables impact the Niger Delta crisis?

2. What influence does the Niger Delta issue have on the region’s educational advancement?

3. How does the Niger Delta issue affect the people’s level of living?

4. What can be done to help their condition?

5. What are the government’s attempts to resolve this conflict?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

Ho: The Niger Delta issue has had little effect on Nigeria’s sociopolitical progress.

Hi: The Niger Delta conflict has influenced Nigeria’s sociopolitical evolution.

Ho: The Niger Delta issue has little influence on people’s way of living.

Hi: The Niger Delta issue affects the people’s level of existence.

1.6 Significance of the Study

According to both local and global investors, the Niger Delta area conflict is growing increasingly dangerous to Nigeria’s business and sociopolitical development because to the militancy of pressure organisations in the area.

However, the area is a multinational commercial hub that draws attention. This is significant because it attempts to investigate the elements that fuel the issue and find solutions to it.

Based on the findings, this study paper proposed a solution to the problem. It is also useful as a reference tool for students and scholars. Furthermore, the work is important to the government, which may require the information presented here for policy implementation.

Finally, the findings of the study will contribute to reducing violence in the Niger Delta region.


The study was limited to Nigeria’s South-East and South-South regions, which include Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, Delta, Imo, and Rivers states.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study will include chosen areas in the Niger Delta region, including the Ohaji/Egnema Local Government Area, but due to the area’s decrepit roads and high transportation costs, the researcher will be unable to cover the entire region.

Another disadvantage of the study is that due to financial constraints, the researcher was unable to cover all of the Niger Delta regions as planned.

Another impediment to the study is the lack of time, which prevented the researcher from visiting all of the Niger Delta’s regions.

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