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Chapter one


1.0 General Introduction

This section provides a general overview of this work. The first chapter defines cloud computing and explains how it came about. It also explains the objective and scope of the research project.

The second chapter offers a review of the literature, including concepts and related works. The third chapter describes a possible methodology for building a scalable network architecture for a hybrid cloud.

Chapter four includes simulations that analyse the pricing mechanism in a hybrid cloud. The work is ended in Chapter 5, and a proposal for future work is offered.

1.1 What Is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is a technological innovation. It simplifies the way we perform computations by allowing customers to use storage devices, processing devices, and other devices as a service rather than paying the costs of purchasing, installing, and maintaining the devices.

Many people [1] describe cloud computing differently, with some of the top vendors being IBM, Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, and Apple. These vendors either provide cloud computing products in some way or are research centre sponsors.

Although definitions differ in one way or another, they always revolve around the same themes [2]: scalability, on-demand, pay-as-you-go, maintainability, etc.

These keywords will be elaborated on below. IBM [1] defines a “cloud” as a pool of virtualized resources that can host various workloads, scale quickly, provision virtual machines to physical machines, support redundancy and self-recovery, and be monitored and rebalanced in real time.

Hai Jin [3], on the other hand, defines the “Cloud” as a type of system that provides IT resources to remote consumers as a service. The resources include hardware, programming environments, and apps.

Cloud-based services are categorised into three types: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS).

The term “cloud computing” is a metaphor for the Internet. A cloud shape is used to represent the internet in network diagrams, hiding the flexible topology and abstracting the infrastructure.

Some commonly used definitions by the cloud community include that of Ian Foster [3], who defines cloud computing as “A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable managed computing power, storage, platforms

and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the internet” and that of Jeff Kaplan, who views cloud computing as “a broad array of web-based services a Cloud computing is the realisation of earlier utility computing concepts, without the technical complexity or deployment concerns.” The following are keywords for cloud computing.

1.1.1 On Demand

Just like a prerequisite condition, a cloud computing service must be able to supply computing resources to consumers as needed. This means that the cloud provider must be able to provide adequate resources in preparation of many client requests.

Using on-demand resources in a cloud computing environment can save customers money on planning, equipment purchases, and installation. This significantly reduces the customer’s financial burden.

The usage of on-demand resources also avoids having underutilised resources, as a customer may only require the use of a specific device for a limited time.

1.1.2 Pay-As-You-Go (Pay-Per-Use)

Customers in a cloud computing environment pay solely for short-term use of resources such as processors or storage, similar to how utilities supply resources such as power, water, and gas on demand and pay per use.

However, unlike utility computing, which allows consumers to access their physical resources, cloud resources and billing are only available in the cloud.

The consumer perceives cloud resources to be nearly boundless, yet the cloud provider actually has finite resources. In order to address scalability difficulties, the cloud provider must establish a service level agreement (SLA) with the customer.

This allows the cloud provider to meet the customer’s evolving needs. This agreement must be defined in response time so that the supplier can have everything ready for the customer’s future expectations.


In a cloud computing system, maintenance is transparent to the user. This relieves the customer of the burden of repairing and replacing hardware or software resources, which is handled by the cloud provider.

Resilient Network Architecture for a Hybrid Cloud; Its Billing System Page 4

1.2 The Evolution of Cloud Computing.

computer technology has evolved from mainframe computer, where users shared dummy terminals, to stand-alone PCs, which met the bulk of users’ demands, and network computing, which improved performance [1].

This trend progressed from internet computing, which used remote applications and resources, to Grid computing, which provided shared computing power and storage via a distributed computing system, and finally to cloud computing

which now provides shared resources on the internet in a scalable and simple manner. This is illustrated diagrammatically in the figure below.

Figure 1: Evolution of Cloud Computing.

Resilient Network Architecture for a Hybrid Cloud; Its Billing System Page 5

All of the technologies listed above are aimed at providing computational power to a large number of end users in a reliable, efficient, and scalable manner. Cloud computing, being one of the most recent technologies, has received a lot of interest in practically every aspect of life, including IT, science, and business.


The goal of this research is to present an evaluation mechanism that can be used to assess the impact of billing parameters in a scalable and resilient hybrid cloud. The assessment method is tested in simulations to determine its efficiency in reviewing the billing system, which is used to bill cloud clients.

The simulations are carried out on a single computer node using the extended cloud simulator “Cloudsim [24]”, which eliminates the need to locate a physical data centre for the simulation.

The main purpose of the simulations is to assess the impact of billing parameters and virtualization in a hybrid cloud.

1.4 Scope of Work

This research comprises applying the optimal technique to maximise the utilisation of hardware resources such as switches when designing a scalable and robust network architecture for a hybrid cloud.

To maintain uniform bandwidth throughout the network design, a Fat Tree Topology is employed, and simulations are performed using Java and other complementing tools such as Apache Ant.




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