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This study investigates the significant restrictions to the commercialization of fish and fish products by farmers in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Fish marketing has been observed to be a profitable activity in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Urban. Fish are offered in a variety of ways, including fresh, smoked, and dried.

Marketers face numerous obstacles, to which the researcher has attempted to provide solutions, as evidenced by the majority of responses. To collect the necessary data, the researcher used both primary and secondary methodologies.

The results gathered from questionnaires were presented in tables and analysed using basic percentages. The studies also revealed that price and poor infrastructure are barriers to successful fish marketing in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

The study suggests that fish marketers join a cooperative society to receive loans from financial institutions in order to enhance their marketing efforts.

Government and commercial organisations could support fish traders by establishing an organised market and facilitating free trade in the study region.

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

Marketing is very crucial in a market economy. The importance of marketing as an incentive for fish output and productivity cannot be overstated. According to Chikwenwu (2005:12),

the selling of agricultural goods in Nigeria involves multiple markets or exchange sites. The number of exchange points is determined by the characteristics of the locations of production and consumption.

If the marketing process is efficient, it will go a long way in delivering sufficient food to the populous via the market mechanism. Lawal, I (2004:12).

The amount of food that people can afford is heavily influenced by market mechanisms and pricing. The market’s ability to establish time, place form, and possession utility is used to judge the effectiveness of the marketing process.

Since rapid preservation and transport became available in the 19th to 21st centuries, fish have faced challenges such as a poor socioeconomic environment, such as an access road, a developed market, a school for children,

poor storage facilities, and fish spoilage, as well as the impact on cost-returns for fish marketers, transportation constraints, epileptic power supply in the cold room, high fish prices, poverty, financial and processing issues.

According to Idega (2004:34), hunger and malnutrition continue to be among the most catastrophic crises facing the world’s poor and needy. About 80 to 90 million people must be fed each year, and fish is the most consistent source of protein for many, yet millions of people who rely on fish live in constant fear of food scarcity.

As Nigeria’s population grows, so does the demand for fish. As a result, a proper agricultural system is required to supply the increasing demand for food while simultaneously making the most use of the available finite resources with minimal waste.

Integrated fish farming is a diverse and integrated approach to farming that focuses on fish as well as other farm products. According to Akinleye (2004:12), despite its abundant people and natural resources, Nigeria relies heavily on imports to meet its fish consumption requirements.

Fish are one of the most diverse animal groupings known to man, with about 20,500 species. In fact, for many Nigerians living along the coast, creeks, and rivers, fish is one of their primary sources of protein, which is required for healthy human growth Downey (1972:65).

The deficit has led in a low animal per capita consumption rate of 7.5 kg, compared to the 13 kg recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation. Fishing has existed from the beginning of humankind. It has been established all over the world.

Nine of the 36 states in the federation are located on the coast and have access to the Atlantic Ocean. Kow, T. (2002:12). With this scenario, natural markets can be developed anywhere. Fish move via numerous market participants and exchange pounds before reaching the end customer.

These market intermediates are the wholesalers and retailers. Both have a significant part in the marketing system. Furthermore, due to the complicated nature of the fish distribution channel,

the local fish seller faces the difficulty of profit maximisation. Akanni (2007: 12). As a result, activities in this area are dominated by the private sector, with little or no government mobilisation.

As a result, any attempt to improve a country’s marketing system must begin with an accurate assessment of the problem. Fish is an excellent source of protein due to its balanced amino acid composition, digestibility, and low cholesterol level.

To this aim, there has been an increase in demand for fish. (Olukosi et al., 2007:53), and in 1981, 384000 tonnes of fish were consumed in Nigeria, with 296000 tonnes produced domestically and the remainder imported (FAO, 1989). Fish account for 6-8% of the agricultural sector’s total contribution to GDP (FAO, 1989).

The fishing sub-sector provides employment opportunities for many Nigerians, particularly those involved in direct fish processing and selling. Amos, (1998).

It is critical to analyse fish marketing systems because they show how the many market participants are organised to transport the commodity from the producer to the end user.

Fish marketing is rarely done from the perspective of the fisherman. There are various intermediaries between producers (fishermen) and consumers (Adegeye, I., 1993:232). As a result, the price of fish fluctuates as it passes through middlemen, increasing significantly by the time it reaches the final consumer.

Because proper fish marketing ensures that fish is available to everybody, it is critical that an assessment of fish marketing be conducted to determine the viability and effectiveness of the fish marketing system.

Fish marketing can be defined as the performance of all business operations involved in the flow of fish from the point of production (fisherman or fish farmer) to the end consumer. Olukosi et al. 2007:76.

A country’s marketing system must be effective at all times and stages of development. An effective marketing system will identify surpluses of produce and bring them to areas of need (Chikwenwu).

1.1 Statement of the Problems

It is critical to understand that the less familiar a species is, the higher the danger that it will be rejected or that it will take a long time to generate demand for it; people’s tastes are slowly and powerfully influenced by traditional eating practices.

When prices rise, less is bought; when prices fall, more is bought, and impoverished people are more likely than rich people to seek out cheaper substitutes.

Thus, in terms of pricing dynamics, marketing costs, and marketing functions inherent in fish distribution, as well as the marketing system’s efficiency. Spatial price behaviour is a key predictor of overall market performance in terms of marketing effectiveness.

Constraints on adequate capital required for successful marketing activities, as well as economic diversification issues that prioritise all actual productive sectors equally.

In many countries, a typical difficulty in fish marketing is profit loss owing to fish rotting; post-harvest losses occur more commonly in the wet season than in the dry. Thus, the current development experienced by fish traders according to include:

There is a lack of updated technology for managing fish output.

The existing harvesting methods are inefficient.

Wasteful and exploitative.

The problem of developing suitable fishing, production, and marketing strategies that are free of feelings, tribalism, and ethnicity is one of the key challenges facing fish marketing in Nigeria.

This is seen in the diverse pre-harvesting methods for fisheries products in Nigeria. Such approaches primarily use artisanal and, to a lesser extent, commercial techniques (trawler system). Infrastructural constraints, notably transportation, impede the development of fish marketing in Nigeria.

1.2 Objects of the Study

1. Examine the constraints associated with effective fish marketing.

2. To investigate ways for effective fish marketing.

3. Determine the value of fish to the Nigerian economy.

4. Identify the influence of fish on the human body.


1. What constraints are associated with good fish marketing?

2. What are the tactics for successful fish marketing?

3. What are the benefits of fish to the Nigerian economy?

4. What are the effects of fish on humans?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The purpose of this study is to bring together various methods and information regarding the subject matter, restrictions to marketing fish and fish products by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria.

1. The findings of this study are expected to be of interest to farmers as well as consumers.

2. The research will give them with critical information on the constraints farmers face when marketing fish and fish products in Afikpo North L. G. A, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Farmers can use this study to make changes or control a number of shortcomings that may be influencing the effective selling of fish products by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, such as excessive prices and a lack of finance.

3. It would also emphasise the benefits of good fish product marketing by farmers in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, in order to improve the farmers’ position.

4. This research will also provide valuable information to individuals who wish to conduct additional research in this area.


This research study is limited to Afikpo North L. G. A in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, where the researcher wishes to identify obstacles to farmers’ marketing of fish and fish products.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study has the following inherent limitations.

The researcher faces some naturally and man-made limits in gathering knowledge and relevant facts, such as:

(i) Time factor: Because this study is being conducted while the researcher is working on her semester project, she may not have enough time to obtain some information and resources for the work at hand.

(ii) Financial constraints: As a student, the researcher relies heavily on the generosity of his or her parents and sponsors to obtain funding. As a result, the resources available for research purposes are insufficient. As a result, she was unable to assess all of the materials collected for the study.

(iii) Materials resource: the researcher finds it difficult to obtain some textbooks, journals, or thesis to carry out the study due to the researcher’s inability to manage time and finances to complete the time-assigned task.

(iv) Human Element: This study includes some human elements, which cannot be considered to be perfect. It is based on the notion of reasonable assurance, which states that despite the study’s limitations, the researcher believes that all information obtained is to the best of her knowledge.

1.8 Definition of Terms

The economy is the process of producing, distributing, trading, and consuming finite products and services by various agents in a certain geographic place.

Fish are any member of a paraphyletic group that includes any gill-bearing aquatic craniates without digits.

Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product, service, or brand to customers in order to promote or sell it.

Mechanism: – This is a collection of rigid bodies joined by joints to transmit a desired force or motion.

Productivity: – This is an average estimate of manufacturing efficiency. It can be represented as the output-to-input ratio employed in the manufacturing process, or output per unit of input.

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