Multiple research on the effect of school environment on academic performance demonstrate that a school atmosphere that is not favorable to learning might result in poor academic achievement (Chimombe, 2011).
The provision of suitable learning facilities at all levels, including equipment and personnel, improves the quality and applicability of the skills provided to students (Lumuli, 2009). Students learn through contact with their environment.
Among the teaching and learning resources are classrooms, labs, libraries, playing grounds, and textbooks. Physical resources play a significant role in fostering an atmosphere that is conducive to teaching and learning.
In light of this, the Draft Report on Cost and Financing of Education in Kenya (RoK, 1995) lists the textbook-to-student ratio and school facilities as indicators of secondary school education quality. Juma (2011) relates examination performance to the condition of teaching and learning resources in schools.
He observes that pupils from disadvantaged homes score poorly on examinations because they frequently reside in places where schools are severely lacking in essential resources. As a result, children may develop a sense of hopelessness and view school as a waste of time.
Physical materials in terms of appropriateness and quality have been found to have a significant impact on the examination performance of pupils (Husen, Saha, & Noonan, 1978). A school with enough instructional materials is more likely to produce students with higher grade point averages than one with inadequate physical resources.
A school with insufficient classrooms will be required to accept more students than is ideal. As an adaptive process, this will place a great deal of strain on resources such as teachers, who may compromise their methods (Nafukho, 1991; Pscharapolous & Woodhall, 1985).
The absence of fundamental facilities such as laboratories has hampered the instruction of science topics. As part of an adaptive mechanism, teachers teach theoretically topics that should be taught practically due to insufficient resources for successful instruction.
This has a negative effect on students’ performance, limiting their competitiveness for chances if performance in such disciplines is a requirement for placement (Mayama 2012; Lumuli, 2009). The purpose of this study is to determine the condition of physical facilities in Nigerian public secondary schools in order to assess their impact on academic achievement.
Financial means and academic achievement
Financial resources are an essential component of educational resources. Financial resources are utilized to acquire physical facilities, textbooks, and human resources, among others (Lumuli, 2009). The availability or sufficiency of financial resources permits a school to acquire more facilities.
Despite the importance of financial resources in stimulating the acquisition of other resources, this is not the case. Draft Report on the Cost and Financing of Education (RoK, 1995) emphasizes that schools’ primary source of revenue is school fees. Over ninety percent of total money earned by schools is comprised of school fees (Selina, 2012).
Even if the government has contributed in the form of subsidized secondary education (SSE), the contribution may be insufficient if it is not well managed. The collection of school fees still varies by institution. When collections are insufficient, infrastructure will be underdeveloped, jeopardizing content delivery.
This ends up putting a lot of strain on current resources which end up hurting academic performance of the school (Eshiwani, 1993). (Eshiwani, 1993).
Diverse schools have implemented diverse financial management strategies, such as investing in income-generating activities (IGAs) to bolster school budgets.
The funds derived from IGAs are utilized to construct school infrastructure or acquire learning-related supplies (Kiveu and Mayio, 2009). Selina (2012) conducted a study on the effect of IGAs on students. Retention Rates in Public Secondary Schools in the District of Vihiga indicate that schools with IGAs produced funds that were used to promote teacher motivational programs.
Such schools ended up achieving higher examination results than schools that did not have such structures (Ibid). Consequently, the purpose of this study is to identify the causes that have contributed to variation in recorded performance among Public Secondary Schools in Teso South District by examining the variation among schools that has led to performance discrepancies.
In order to solve the aforementioned issue, the purpose of this study is to determine how financial resources have been deployed to enhance the performance of various schools, as measured by recorded KCSE results.
2.4 Human Capital and Academic Achievement
Teachers, students, and support staff make up the school’s human resource. Human resource as a factor of production is affected by adequacy and quality, as expressed by training and motivation (Juma, 2011). According to behavioral scientists, good employee performance requires motivational skills and a system of rewards that fosters quality work (Ivancerich et al, 1994).
The quality of grades obtained in an examination will be determined by the amount of training and teaching experience of the teachers (Harbison and Mayer, 1964; Husen et al, 1978 and Heinemann; 1981). A skilled instructor will have the required pedagogical abilities to increase students’ comprehension, so inspiring them to learn and enhancing their academic achievement.
The student-teacher ratio reflects the quality of teachers. The student-to-teacher ratio represents the number of students managed by a single teacher in a lesson stream (Lumuli, 2009). A low student-to-teacher ratio indicates that a teacher will be able to manage fewer kids, signifying a high degree of attentiveness.
A high student-to-teacher ratio suggests that a teacher will be able to manage numerous kids at once. This will cause teachers to utilize logical teaching methods, rendering students passive (Michelowa, 2003; Dembele & Miaro, 2003).
Extremely low student-to-teacher ratios result in underutilization of instructors, whereas excessively high student-to-teacher ratios degrade academic performance and education quality. This study aims to determine the effect of human resource on the academic performance of pupils, as measured by KCSE scores.
2.5 Learning strategies and Academic Achievement
In Britain, new teachers are just marginally better prepared for the challenges they will face than their predecessors were thirty years ago. This highlights the fact that teacher preparation programs are out of touch with modern school changes. Adult learners’ return to the classroom in Britain has resulted in a more sophisticated customer for schools than in the past. Staff development is vital for the school to perform the expanded obligations that are now expected of it (Wilson, 2002).
Teachers are crucial to the promotion of quality education in schools because they are change agents. Teachers at all levels of the education system should have access to training and ongoing professional development in order to participate in local and global decisions influencing their teaching settings (UNESCO, 2000).
Educational administration has no choice but to train teachers and other workers. This is owing to the fact that the competence of employees is not permanent due to reasons such as curriculum change, technological change, and promotions (Okumbe, 1998).