# Project Materials

ASSISTING STUDENTS OF SEGE COMMUNITY JHS ONE TO CHANGE SIMPLE FRACTIONS TO PERCENTAGES

ABSTRACT
The research was conducted at Sege Community Junior High School One (1). When her mentor taught the topic “converting simple fractions to percentage fractions and vice versa in JHS One, the researcher found a difficulty (1).

After the session, she saw that the majority of students’ scores on the five evaluation questions were below average. The purpose of the study was to increase students’ ability to convert basic fractions to percentage fractions and vice versa utilizing a 10 10 grid and percentage charts.

The researcher utilized action research methodology to analyze the issue. The class had a total population of forty (40), and a sample size of twenty was selected (20). Students were chosen for the study using a technique of systematic sampling.

The instruments utilized by the researcher were observation, interview, and test. For the data analysis, frequency distribution tables, pie charts, and bar graphs were utilized. To assist pupils in solving the problem, 10 10 grids, paper shading, and a percentage chart were employed as teaching and learning tools.

Through the utilization of teaching and learning materials, students were able to convert simple fractions to percentage fractions and percentage fractions to simple fractions. The investigation indicated that the class instructor did not employ TLMs during teaching.

The researcher intends to encourage teachers to employ TLMs when instructing mathematics, particularly the concept of converting basic fractions to percentage fractions and vice versa.

FIRST CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
This chapter begins with an overview of the study’s context, followed by a summary of the study’s problem, its goal, and its objectives. In addition, research questions, the significance of the study, limitations, delimitations, organization, and definitions of terminology were addressed.

Sege is a settlement located in Ghana’s Greater Accra Region’s Ada West District. The majority of Sege’s inhabitants are farmers and merchants. The inhabitants of Sege utilize mathematical concepts in a variety of ways.

Undoubtedly, one could argue that not only do the merchants and farmers of Sege apply mathematical ideas and concepts in their daily activities, but one would also hope that their children/wards are taught in a manner that inspires, arouses, and maintains the children’s interest in the topic.

Providing these young people with a solid mathematical foundation throughout their formative years would likely demystify the study of mathematics and alleviate a pressing issue.

Asafo Adjei (2002) defines mathematics as the process of solving issues and applying one’s understanding of shapes and measurements, calculation, and critical thinking in daily life. According to James & James (2001), mathematics is the logical study of numbers, shape, order, quantity, measure, and several related ideas. These are ingrained in our daily lives.

Students must be assisted in developing mathematical problem-solving, researching, abstracting, and generalizing skills so that they can operate well in society. In addition, they would need to be able to perform addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division.

Percentages and fractions are without a doubt crucial aspects of mathematics education for school-aged children. Students exchange playthings at home and school. Not only do students share material items such as food, candies, and reading materials at school, but one might also expect them to share the time needed to answer the questions posed to them during their examination period.

In such a scenario, the student would need to know not only percentages but also fractions. Despite the importance of percentages and fractions in a child’s educational growth, students at Sege Community JHS One do not understand them.

They cannot do mathematical operations that involve converting fractions to percentages and percentages to fractions. Possibly, after being instructed at school, these students do not practice at home, and their parents’ busy schedules may have prevented them from supervising their children’s homework, which may have contributed to their poor performance with regard to the concepts of converting fractions into percentages and vice versa.

It was hypothesized that teachers do not employ the proper instructional approaches and strategies. Therefore, students struggle to comprehend the principles of converting fractions to percentages and vice versa.

This challenge sparked the researcher’s interest in using ten by ten grids (10 10 grids) and percentage charts to help pupils of Sege Community Junior High School One (1) understand the notion of converting fractions into percentages and percentages into fractions.

However, numerous research have been undertaken on the consistency or lack thereof of pupils’ mathematical performance. According to Ilgent and Pulakos (1999), the factors that determine mathematics achievement are of critical importance to individuals, educators, and organizations.

According to Graham (1994) and Campbell (1990), mathematics performance is associated with an individual’s objectives and is viewed as a fundamental idea in every context or endeavor. In addition, Constantine, Cruz, and Lenning (1962) suggest that improving a student’s mathematics performance is a trip, with the degree of performance describing the student’s position along the journey.

Various academic performance theories, such as the Assessment theory (Shirley, 2011), the learning and cognitive theory (Demmert & Towner, 2003), the selection theory (Cziko,1995) and the expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964), along with empirical studies conducted by researchers in Ghana and beyond, were reviewed to measure and define the scope of the study.

EXPRESSION OF THE PROBLEM
During a two-week, consistent presence at Sege community JHS One (1), the researcher noted that around eighty percent (80%) of the pupils received low assessment scores during a mathematics lecture. Therefore, the researcher decided to devise a method to aid pupils in overcoming the challenge of converting fractions to percentages and vice versa.

In addition, researchers (such as Ardia, Turbany, Cosculluela, and Barrios, 2006; Cody, College, and York, 2001; Li, 2012; Madsen, Becker, and Thomas, 1968; Was, 2006) have studied in related areas to find the factors that influence student’ mathematics related performances at various levels of education in Ghana and beyond, but few or none of these studies have examined JHS students’ ability to overcome the difficulty of converting simple fractions to improper fractions This information gap compelled the necessity to conduct this study in order to close the gap.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The ultimate objective of this study was to assist students of Sege Community Junior High School One (1) in converting fractions to percentages and percentages to fractions.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
What could be the root causes of Sege Community JHS 1 pupils’ difficulty converting fractions to percentages?
Why are students of Sege Community Junior High School One unable to convert fractions to percentages?
How will pupils at Sege Community JHS One (1) convert fractions to percentages using 10×10 grids?
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What could be the underlying causes of Sege Community JHS One (1 students’ difficulties converting fractions to percentages and percentages to fractions?
Why are pupils at Sege Community Junior High School unable to convert fractions to percentages and vice versa?
How will pupils at Sege Community Junior High School convert fractions to percentages and vice versa using 10×10 grids?
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
This outcome will benefit students, teachers, curriculum makers, and other researchers interested in the same field of study.

The outcome of the study will stimulate and sustain the kids’ enthusiasm in mathematics studies. It will also assist in demystifying maths and enhancing the student’s interest in studying percentages.
The course will equip mathematics teachers with the essential pedagogy for teaching fractions and percentages at all grade levels.
In addition, it is anticipated that the results or outcome of this study will likely serve as a guide for curriculum developers and policymakers in the construction of curricula for school children. Lastly, it is hoped that the study will serve as a reference for those who would like to conduct the same research in the same location for reasons of validity and reliability.
LIMITATIONS
Listed below are some of the study’s limitations that will impact its findings.

Respondents refused to participate in the interview.
Some students feared that if they performed poorly on the exam, they would be ridiculed by their peers.
Some students were absent on purpose during the intervention phase of the resurfacing phase at the conclusion of the study. (They were absent from school for some time.)
DELIMITATIONS
The research or study was limited to Sege Community Junior High School, specifically JHS 1 Class. In addition, the research was restricted to converting percentages into fractions and fractions into percentages.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
From percentages to fractions, and vice versa

Locale – same field of study or geographic region

Remove the mystique – make it straightforward and understandable

STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
Background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose, objectives, and research questions, significance of the study, limitations, delimitations, and definitions of terms are included in the first chapter of the study.

The second chapter reviewed literature pertinent to the topic.

Third chapter discusses methodology and data collection procedure The fourth chapter presented and analyzed data and discussed the results.

Finally, chapter five provided a summary of the entire work and recommendations.

ASSISTING STUDENTS OF SEGE COMMUNITY JHS ONE TO CHANGE SIMPLE FRACTIONS TO PERCENTAGES