ADMISSION BARRIERS INTO NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
ADMISSION BARRIERS INTO NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
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THE STUDY EXPLORED THE BARRIERSOFADMISSION TO NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES. A STUDY OF THE LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY. The study included a structured open-ended interview questionnaire. The sample included 50 respondents: 20 university admissions applicants, 20 members of the FESTAC community, and 10 university lecturers from the LASU Raji Rasaki campus who served as administrators. To guide the study, six (6) research questions were developed.
Four were to be answered using the structured questionnaire, while two were to be answered using secondary data. The data collected in section A of the questionnaire was analysed using percentages, whereas section B of the questionnaire was analysed qualitatively.
The findings demonstrated that limited access to university education had ramifications for the entire society, including applicants, parents, and society.
It was also discovered that rules such as the NUC Carrying Capacity for Universities, the JAMB Quota, Post UME, and the Catchment Area rule needed to be reviewed and amended in order to enhance access to university education. According to the findings, it was suggested, among other things, that government funding be a vital element in improving access to colleges.
JAMB examinations must be effective and reputable in order for the educational system to maintain a high standard. Gender equality in university admission should also be encouraged, and the catchment Area rule should be revised to accommodate students from other regions if space is available in such departments.
Furthermore, the government should make it a priority to accommodate all courses by increasing university facilities and establishing new universities. It is expected that if all of these measures are implemented, access to universities will grow.
Background Of The Study
With 100 recognised universities across the country, including 27 federally run, 34 state-controlled, and 39 privately constructed institutions, millions of Nigerian adolescents seeking university education are finding it incredibly difficult to gain entry. Some who have tried and failed numerous times are becoming frustrated and on the verge of giving up.
Of fact, the number of available universities in nigeria may be regarded to be insufficient in comparison to the overwhelming number of qualified individuals seeking admission, resulting in the first issue: access. Cost and quality are two more issues that a typical university admissions applicant faces. After overcoming the obstacle of access, a successful candidate admitted to any university is confronted with the Siamese challenges of cost and quality.
A closer examination of this scenario will undoubtedly reveal that, among the three types of institutions in Nigeria, only the children of the wealthy could easily attend private and, most likely, state universities, where entrance is relatively simpler and the cost is higher.
As a result, the organisation receives between 60,000 and 65,000 subscriptions each year, despite having a carrying capacity of only 5,000 or less (Daily Champion, January 19, 2010).
According to Plant (1990), if no intervention strategies are implemented, the number of people impacted by this condition will rapidly increase. Strategies to address these issues largely centre on the adoption of well-defined criteria, so that each candidate can simply determine whether or not he or she is eligible. Among the criteria are the following:
Catchment areas are defined in this section.
Examinations are carried out
Universities with available spaces
In some locations, like as Lagos state, there is an overabundance of university applications.
After a candidate has been screened using the aforementioned criteria, the first short list based only on merit will be examined. Only the best and most prepared candidates are selected to oral interviews, where only the best and most prepared can scale past the academic criteria imposed by various departments. To be sure, a combination of SSCE and JAMB results is a powerful weapon.
Then we can truly claim that any student who fails at this point of the interactive session is a failure since no one, not even the Vice-Chancellor, can save him or her. When studied seriously, the admission process is truly a relief for many Nigerian youths because you do not need to know anyone before you are admitted.
It should be so clear that many candidates who never anticipated to be admitted because they did not have a godfather can celebrate at being admitted to the institution.
As a result, Nigeria as a country must strive hard to establish an atmosphere in which everyone may prosper. The current system, in which a candidate pursues admission to university with no possibility of success, is unappealing. Many people have been discouraged in their hunt for a university, and they are eventually forced to seek admission abroad if they can afford the hefty expense. (Source: The Daily Champion, By Sunday Saanu, January 19th, 2010).
Statement Of The Problem
The number of available universities in Nigeria may be considered insufficient in comparison to the large number of qualified individuals requesting admission each year. Many people were disappointed when they were unable to get entry to the university. Some students dropped out of university because they couldn't afford it, resulting in a waste of educational resources, which are already scarce.
Out of the 1,493,000 candidates who took the JAMB examination in 2010/2011, 2,892 received 300 or higher, while 842,941 received less than 200. Prof. Dibu Ojerinde, Registrar and Chief Executive of JAMB, stated that other numbers showed that a total of 7,504 results were withheld and are still being investigated by the examination board.
A total of 15,160 incidences of various types of examination misconduct were also documented. According to the figures, candidates from Imo State led the list of applicants with 113,543, representing 7.60%, followed by Delta with a total of 93,971 candidates representing 6.29 %. In comparison, the Federal Capital Territory had the fewest candidates (3,093), accounting for 0.21 percent of all applicants, while Zamfara had 5,253 applicants, accounting for 0.35 percent of all applicants.
In terms of the most applicants, the University of Lagos received 99,195 applications but could only admit 9,507 students. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, respectively, got 89,760 and 88,177 applicants.
Prof. Dibu Ojerinde, Registrar and Chief Executive of JAMB, stated that while the UTME was created to increase access, candidates continued to prefer universities over other tertiary institutions, and universities, unfortunately, continue to face carrying capacity constraints.
This study focuses on university education policy, which is a higher level education that tries to promote a higher type of knowledge that could allow Nigeria to pursue a quick development strategy. It basically criticises the problems that some of these rules cause.
The Goal of the Research
The primary goal of this research was to:
1. Determine the percentages of applicants to admission to Nigerian universities from 2010 to 2011.
2. To determine whether government funding of Nigerian universities is a hindrance to university study.
3. Determine the impact of limited access to universities on applicants, parents, and society.
4. To assess the competency of the Jamb examination and methods for increasing admission to universities.
5. Determine whether the catchment area regulation improves access and equity to Nigerian universities.
6. Determine whether there are gender inequalities in university admissions in Nigeria.
The following research questions were addressed by the researcher:
i. What are the proportions of applications and admissions from 2000 to 2010?
ii. Is government funding an impediment to obtaining a university education?
iii. What are the consequences of limited access to colleges for applicants, parents, and society?
iv. Are JAMB's examinations and procedures capable of increasing access to universities?
v. Does the catchment area rule improve access and equity to higher education?
vi. Are there gender disparities in university admissions in Nigeria?
Scope Of The Study
This study was restricted to the following topics:
Raji Rasaki Campus lecturers at Lagos State University.
An open-ended self-structured interview questionnaire.
Members of the FESTAC community include parents, undergraduates, graduates, market women, and others.
The Importance of the Research
The study's findings will help provide information to both the government and those seeking admission to higher education institutions, reducing the rate of admission difficulties at these schools. It would also be a wake-up call to provide an intervention institutional admission mechanism to address ineptitude and variation in higher education admission processes. It may also reveal areas where private institutions are deficient and need to be improved.
Limitations of the Research
i) It is anticipated that respondents will be resistant to using research equipment. The persuading strategy, however, will be applied.
ii) Because retrieving the questionnaire on-the-spot may be problematic, on-the-spot administration of the instrument will be used.
iii) To address the issue of ambiguity in the questionnaire, statements would be simplified.
iv) The interview questions would be of the open-ended variety.
Terms with Operational Definitions
Acceptance into an institution is referred to as admission.
Mechanisms: a method or system for accomplishing anything
Undergraduate: a university or college student pursuing their first degree.
Institution: a huge important organisation with a specific function, such as Lagos State University.
ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology.
Open University: an institution where students study at their own speed, in their own time, and in their own way.
Administration: The people who plan, organise, and operate a business.
Bottleneck: something that stifles development or advancement, especially in an organisation
Access is the right or chance to use or benefit from something regardless of individual characteristics.
ODL is an abbreviation for Open Distance Learning.