Due to the educational growth and technological advancement in the world, new ideas and innovations are developing in maintaining buildings most especially student centre. Which are difficult to maintain due to the nature of users and the population it accommodates. In Nigeria minimising maintenance problems in buildings demands the creation of spaces and specifying building materials which will minimise maintenance right from the design stage. Even in the developed countries, maintaining student centre buildings is a difficult task especially because the building designers could not proffer solutions to the maintainability of every building component, some of the major causes of building deterioration includes bad design, faulty construction, improper maintenance measures and most importantly the integration of maintenance design considerations and features in student centre, In order to determine the extent to which this was reflected in the design of Kaduna state University Student centre complex, Kafanchan, Nigeria, The methodology of the research employed distribution of questionnaire to the maintenance personnel and workers of some selected student centre in Kaduna, Jos and Ille – Ife as study cases, and at the same time a visual survey which vividly shows and evaluate the architects’ consideration to maintenance. The research finally suggested the enforcement of maintenance integration in design requirements in student centres and planning authorities, it also proved that proper maintenance considerations during the design stage will save the building from been a failed design, It also shows the extent to which maintenance features can be integrated into student centre buildings.
1.1 Background to the Study
Maintenance as defined by the BS 3811is a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition. These actions can be carried out in anticipation of failure, ‘retaining’, and work carried out after failure ‘restoring. Buildings generally, require proper and adequate maintenance to ensure comfort for the occupants for carrying out their day to day activities as well as to enhance the performance and life span of the buildings. According to Hoe (2008) and Suwaibatul (2011), the purpose of an effective maintenance is to achieve the following five key goals: preserve taxpayers’ investments in public buildings, help buildings function as they were intended and operate at peak efficiency including minimizing energy consumption, prevent failures of building systems that would interrupt occupants’ activities and the delivery of public services, sustain a safe and healthy environment by keeping buildings and their components in good repair and structurally sound and also provide maintenance services in ways that are cost-effective. Maina and Haruna (2014) also noted that closer attention to specification and design related matters which are crucial should be adhered by design professionals such as the architect.
An excellent practice of maintenance is greatly needed to increase the life cycle of a property and to minimize unexpected breakdowns or deterioration effects. Thus, all buildings require maintenance to function and move smoothly towards its dilapidation, decay and failure by age which would be considerably decayed because of proper maintenance. Due to the vastness of the works, it involves the interaction between several determinants that govern the use of buildings Faremi et al., (2011). The determinants involves planning, directing, controlling and organizing maintenance services for the sustenance of the value of a building, therefore, it must be considered as a strategic process if the value of a building is to be sustained Olufemi (2009).
Education growth and technological advancement in some countries in the Nineteenth century has led to the growing demand for student’s creativity and interpersonal skills which are factors that led to development of skills and inovations in many parts of the world. Student centres thus, are some of the building types specifically characterised with various recreational activities. As education growth and technological advancement becomes worldwide, the development is spreading throughout the world, even in developing countries. It is unfortunate but, glaring fact, that student centres in Nigeria are in very poor and deplorable conditions of structural and decorative disrepairs as stated by Yakubu (2009). These poor maintenance practices in student centres have led to neglect, and vandalism towards public properties, gradual decline in patronage and loss of its beauty.
Ansari (2014) also noted that buildings depending on their nature of activities require a maintenance plan, which when followed strictly, will ensure the postponement of building deterioration. Public buildings with all kind of activities, users of different age and background are difficult to control and they also pose an enormous threat to the maintenance of these public buildings. It is because of this; student centres usually need the services of other professionals, from architects, landscape architects, engineers and technical persons, security personnel, and others as facility managers, to help them run their facility, from its maintenance to operation. The difficulty and dangers of maintaining these public buildings especially student centres makes the architects to have a lot to offer in ensuring the feasibility of maintaining public buildings especially at the design stage when they can foresee how most if not all, the maintenance possibility of these buildings.
This study seeks is to develop a maintenance strategy model for student centres, which will ensure to reduce and ease maintenance problems right from design stage and how this strategy can be used by the maintenance departments of the building.
Technology and new building materials coupled with new architectural styles are making buildings more sophisticated; as educational growth and technological advancement in the world is increasing every day, new ideas and innovations are developing in buildings most especially public buildings. Student centres are one of the public buildings often interesting and inspiring structures for it is the crossroad for students to exhibit their interpersonal skills in the collegiate atmosphere, these centres will only be this way for as long as the building is properly maintained. There are many specific maintenance tasks on public buildings that need to be regularly maintained including window cleaning, inspection of component of the building such as walls, floors, roofs and even structural repair. When building accommodates large number of people of different lifestyles it becomes difficult to maintain because of façade of buildings with large openings and glass pane, at times irregular shapes with poor access to roofs and the various elevations. Maintaining these kinds of building pose threats to the lives of the maintenance workers to access certain parts of the building for cleaning and replacing. According to Moses (2011), every component of a building should have access for maintenance considering how it can be cleaned and replaced to prevent early failures.
However, access, replacement, maintenance equipment, poor detailing, material selection in relation to the climate study are some of the design problems of the building that leads to poor maintainability. Alexander (2003) also noted that most public buildings these days suffer maintenance problems due to some of these design issues and poor maintenance culture.
Student centres usually require frequent maintenance due to the population it accommodates, its nature of activities, inaccessible roofs and elevations. Mostly maintenance like cleaning and replacing is a common problem in such buildings. In Nigeria, most buildings especially students centre suffers maintenance problems which can be attributed to the designers inability to integrate into the design right from the design stage.
Integrating of these maintenance features from the design stage will explain why the maintenance plan and culture is not adhered to, and how can the architects make their buildings easily maintainable right from the design stage by providing the necessary features needed to ease maintenance.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to develop a maintenance strategy model for student centres, which will reduce and ease maintenance problems right from design stage.
The objectives of the study are:
To identify parts of student centres that frequently needs maintenance.To develop a design framework that would ensure the integration of maintenance features in student centres.To demonstrate the outcome of the study in the design of a proposed Student Centre Complex.
1.4 Research Questions
This research intends to answer the following questions;
How have maintenance design features shaped student centre buildings?What are the maintenance design features that can be integrated into the design to enhance the maintenance of student centres?
1.5 Scope of Study
This research will be focused on architectural design elements, mainly on spatial organization, aesthetics, building form, building elements, site planning and landscaping, structural and construction system as well as to come up with a good design which incorporates maintenance factors. The survey research will focus on Student Centre Complex using questionnaire, interview schedule and case studies of existing Students Centre Complexes locally. The study will attempt to incorporate other facilities in the proposed Student Centre Complex which would enhance attraction, utilisation and as well meet the spatial, and functional requirements of its users.
1.6 Justification of Study
The driving force behind this student centre is to encourage the students to utilise their intellects and express their talents in the collegiate atmosphere which is the crossroad of developing civic engagement, social, interpersonal development, leadership skills and friendship.
To the government it would help in the reduction of maintenance cost, since building cost is one of the crucial areas draining the national economy. And also to become a useful reference for architects and design engineers to incorporate crucial maintenance factors during design phase to ensure a successful implementation of design for less maintenance, particularly for future projects in Nigeria. Furthermore the study will assist managers of student centres buildings to become aware of the current state of their building infrastructure and its effect on the safety and health of personnel and also to put in place adequate innovative measures to prevent 5 deterioration in new buildings which ultimately lead to increased cost in restoring these buildings to their original state.
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