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THE NIGER DELTA MILITANTS AND CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – viii
Abstract – – – – – – – – ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the – – – – 2
1.3 Research Questions – – – – – – 3
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – 5
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope of the Study/Limitations of the study – – – 6
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework – – – – – 8
2.1.1 National Development – – – – – 8
2.1.2 Non State Actors (NSA) – – – – – 11
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature – – – – 13
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – 18
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH OLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – 22
3.2 Description of Study Area – – – – – 22
3.3 Sources of Data – – – – – – 22
3.4 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 22

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Analysis – – – – – – – 23
4.2 Discussion of – – – – – 35
4.3 Activities of the Niger Delta Militants in the Niger Delta Region that
hinders National Development: Challenges and Prospects – 37

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 43
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 44
References – – – – – – – 47

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demography of the respondents as categorized by
their states of origin – – – – – – 23

Table 2: Focus on National Development Will Definitely Lead
to Sustainable Development in Nigeria – – – 25

Table 3: Niger delta is very important region in Nigeria – – 26

Table 4: The Nigerian government is solely responsible
for the resurgence of militancy in the Niger Delta – – 27

Table 5: Dialogue with the militants will bring about
long lasting peace in the region – – – – 28

Table 6: The -national corporations are solely
responsible for the resurgence of militancy in the Niger Delta 30

Table 7: Regular clean-up of the Niger Delta is the
responsibility of the multi-national corporations – – 32

Table 8: (Note: 10(7) = Contracts of which 7 are completed – 34

ABSTRACT
The Niger Delta Militants in the Niger Delta Region such as the Niger Delta Avengers and so on who specialize in Pipeline Vandalism, Oil Theft, Illegal Refinery, Kidnapping of experts, has contributed to the crumbling economy of Nigeria, as their series of attacks on oil facilities have reduced the barrel production of crude oil per day in the region, which pose an imminent threat with the ongoing recession in the country. The identified response has been the cutbacks on the amnesty arrangements, the environ degradation and continuous deprivation of the oil rich regions from the proceeds of the oil derived from their region and demand for ownership of the region by residents. This work however used secondary data, tables and charts to qualitatively analyse the impact of militancy on national development in Nigeria. The findings of these research work reveal among others that the renewed agitation in the Niger Delta has negative implications on the national development of Nigeria, that Niger Delta is important to the development of Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that dialogue between the government and the militants should be taken more seriously and that more measures should be put in place to ensure regular cleanup of the Niger Delta Region.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The Niger Delta Militants are organized agitating armed groups that operate in the Niger Delta region as social movements to express their anger, sometimes violently arising from the perceived frustration and marginalization by the Nigerian State and its agents in the region. They are classified into three groups, the militia groups, the cult groups, and gangs, who operate independently in the region. This research is aimed at identifying the characteristics and activities of the non-state security actors and their impact on development trajectory of their host communities.
Amidst the national development disequilibrium in the country, Nigeria is also confronted with daunting develop challenges which pose serious threat to socio-economic development. These develop challenges include endemic rural and urban poverty, high rate of unemployment, debilitating youth unemployment, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating exchange rate, high inflation rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, very large domestic debt, and rising stock of external debt (Ewetan, 2013)
In this light Chandler (2007) sees development as a broader concept that recognizes psychological and material factors that measure human well-being. Development therefore is a multifaceted phenomenon and man centered. It is the process of empowering people to maximize their potentials, and develop the knowledge capacity to exploit nature to meet daily human needs (Rodney, 1972; Nnoli, 1981; Ake, 2001). The transformation of the society and the emergence of new social and economic organizations are critical indicators of development (Stiglitz cited in Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013).
This research work will focus mainly on the activities of the Niger Delta militants assessing the challenges they pose to Nigeria as a country in the aspect of national development.
1.2 Statement of the
Since the mid-2000s, national security crisis in Nigeria has been escalated by the rise of ethnic Ijaw militant groups in the Niger Delta region. On the one hand, militancy in the Niger Delta is regarded as a response to poverty, environ degradation and oil pollution within the region occasioned by oil exploration and the operations of oil multinationals and by years of government neglect and insensitivity to the plight of the people (Ogbonnaya 2011).
The Niger Delta remains an important region to Nigeria due to the massive contribution to the economy of the country through its oil resources. However, the insurgence of militancy in the region poses serious challenges to not only the region but also the national development of the country. These challenges as they appear in the Niger Delta area include; bombings of oil facilities, kidnapping, oil bunkering etcetera.
Responsibilities for most of the recent attacks in Niger Delta have been claimed by a group named Niger Delta Avengers, which intends to deal consequent attacks on the region, with the futuristic motives of crippling the Nigerian economy. Militancy in the Niger Delta region is not a recent development, but it has been suppressed to the barest minimum in the past through several policy and military actions by the government and supposed contribution from the oil majors, such as; Amnesty Programme, JTF operations, etc.
Despite the supposed importance accrued to the Niger Delta region and efforts in combating militancy in the region, there has been resurgence of military and incessant security crises which have undermined development. Is the Niger Delta really the bedrock of the Nigerian economy? Policy and development measures have been introduced, why does it always seem to be short lived? Or are the development and policy actions of the government as gimmicks to explicit the region of the oil resources? Do the activities of both government and multi-national corporations in the region contribute to development challenges?

THE NIGER DELTA MILITANTS AND CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL

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