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GENERAL

THE INFLUENCE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING ON BRAND

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ABSTRACT

The availability of assorted brands of beer in Nigeria has led to competition for increased market share in the beer industry.  When competition is keen and consumers are faced with brand choice in the market, if becomes imperative for manufacturers to understand the major factors that can encourage consumers to patronize their own brands. This, then, forms   the basis for marketing planning and action.  This study which was based on a survey of 300 selected consumers of Star and 33 beer in Uyo urban, examined the influence of Newspaper advertising on preference of star and 33 brands of beer. The stratified sampling technique was used to obtain data from the respondent’s personality by the researcher. Tables and sample, percentages were used in analyzing the data. The result revealed that both male and female of different age groups, were influenced by advertising in their preference for the brand. The  major reason  for the brand preference was  “Captivating” advertising consumers perception of the brands was  that star was of high quality  and always available  while 33, its high quality notwithstanding, was most times unavailable. Newspaper advertising was most preferred by the respondents of all the media channels used in advertising Star and ‘33’ beer.  The study concludes that advertising consumer’s patronage of star and 33 brands of beer.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                            Pages

Declaration      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgements    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

     Background of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2      Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3      Objectives of Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.4      Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.5.     Scope of Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.6.     Significance of Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.7.     Definition of Terms    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1.     Review of Concept.    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

2.1.1.  Advertising Defined   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

2.1.2.  The Role of Advertising in the Society          –           –           –           –           9

2.1.3   Advertising and Consumer Behaviour           –           –           –           –           11

2.1.4.  Influence of Advertising on Brand    –           –           –           –           –           14

2.1.5.  Consumer’s  Psychology         –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.2. Review of Opinion         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16

2.3. Review of Studies          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.4. Theoretical Framework   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.4.1. Learning Theory          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Area of the study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.2. Population of the study   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.3. Research Design  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.4. Sample and Sampling Procedure –           –           –           –           –           –           21

3.5. Instrument for Data Collection    –           –           –           –           –           –           21

3.6. Validity of Instrument     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           22

3.7. Method of Data Collection-        –           –           –           –           –           –           22

3.8. Method of Data Analysis            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           22

CHAPTER FOUR:

   4.1    DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1.1. Presentation of Data –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

4.2. Analysis and Discussion of Findings    –           –           –           –           –           30

4.2.1. Research Question 1  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           30

4.2.2. Research Questions II            –           –                       –           –           –           30

4.2.3 Research Question III –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1.   Summary         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

5.2.   Conclusion      –           –                       –           –           –           –           –           34

5.3.   Recommendation        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

         REFERENCES

         APPENDIX 1

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                               Titles                                                   Pages                                                 

Table 1: distribution of Respondents by Gender      –           –           –           19       

Table 2; Age Distribution of Respondents    –           –           –           –           19

Table 3: Educational Qualification of Respondents –           –           –           20

Table 4: Consumer’s Brand Preference –       –           –           –           –           20

Table 5: Consumer’s Sources of Awareness of Star and 33 Beer     –           21

Table 6: Media that influence Consumer’s Buying Decision            –           22

Table 7: Consumer’s Reasons for Brand Preference –           –           –           22

Table 8: Advertising Influences Consumers Decision?         –           –           23

Table 9: Does Consumers Exhibit Brand Loyalty?   –           –           –           23

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

           Advertising is a paid from of communication that is transmitted  through mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and direct mail, mass  transit vehicle displays.  (Nana 2006) it is concerned with selling of a product or service. This is done through the creative skills or cop0ywriting, illustration, layout, typography, scriptwriting and video making based on a theme.

           The British Institute of practitioners in Advertising (IPA) see advertising as the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost.

           Advertising is undertaken in the expectation to increase patronage, but  its main purpose is to create  awareness  and increase demand  by informing and educating  the consumers  on the availability of a product or services at a   particular point  for sale.

  Advertising, either through magazine, newspaper, radio or television is essential for most companies get their products out to the public. The companies to depend primarily on these media channels to create awareness for their product among the consumers. Gladwell (2007:62) asserts that advertising is the most powerful and sustained system of propaganda in human history.

           Therefore, manufacturers produce goods and services for consumption and advertisement, enables the information to reach consumers. This will then translate into buying decisions, if the consumer needs or can afford such goods or services.

            Most times, people are influenced by what they, See, hear or read, since these are targeted at the psyches of relatively large number of people. No doubts this accelerated reception of information and corresponding influence of public opinion has been attributed to the advancement in the channels of dissemination of advertising messages, which have become the elements conditioning the mind and attitudes of the consumers towards a particular product (Lerch and said, 1979). No Wonder, Hawkins (2004), have stated that the internet and other communication technology channels are generally changing many aspects of the consumers’ buying behaviour, thereby influencing their buying behaviour positively.

            In a similar view, fullop (1981), argues that a part from using advertisement to attract the attention of consumers all over the world to new goods and services by explaining, displaying and showing them the attributes of such a product so as to deal with the doubt they may be experiencing and expressing about a product, but that it is also used to maintain constants sales, because over a given period, the need, desire and demands of the consumers over a specific product changes, especially when competing brand enter the market.

            Thus, Williams (1999), have submitted that it becomes imperative to constantly keep the consumers informed by reminding them through the communication technology channels about available products with low costs and other attributes as they go shopping.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

 Star and 33 Beer brands of beer are heavily advertised on pages of newspapers. Incidentally, too, these brands of beer appear to be heavily patronized by beer consumers. A casual observation at bars tends to indicate it. Could there be any possible correlation between the advertising of Star and 33 Beer and the consumption of the products.

            The central problem is: Does advertising influence the consumption of Star and 33 beer brands of beer? Or are there any other factors influencing consumer’s purchasing decision on the two products?

1.3       Objectives of Study

            The following are the objectives of this study:

To ascertain the extent to which newspaper advertising has influenced the patronage of Star and 33 brands of beer.

To ascertain factors other than newspapers advertising that influence preference to Star and 33 brands of beer.

To find out the general perception of consumers on Star and 33 brands of beer.

To find out if consumers of Star and 33 brand exhibit complete brand loyalty to these products because of the advertisement.

THE INFLUENCE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING ON BRAND PREFERENCE OF STAR AND “33” BEER AMONG CONSUMERS IN UYO URBAN

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