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THE EFFECT OF GENDER STEREOTYPING ON CAREER CHOICE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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THE ECT OF STEREOTYPING ON CAREER CHOICE AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS

 

ABSTR

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender stereotyping on career choices among secondary school students in the Moshi rural district. The study specifically sought to examine secondary school students’

knowledge of career requirements, gender differences in career choice among secondary school students, and the extent to which gender stereotyping beliefs influence career choices among secondary school students in Moshi rural district. A total of 299 students took part in the study.

A questionnaire was used to collect data. The stical Package for the al Sciences was used to conduct quantitative analyses on the data (SPSS). The level of career information and knowledge was determined using frequencies and percentages.

The Chi squire test was used to determine the relationship between the study’s variables. (T-test) was used to compare the mean scores of stereotyping of sex careers and subject specialization. According to the findings of the study, students had a better understanding of the various types of careers available in the workplace.

Teachers, parents, relatives, books, television, career models, radio, and the internet were identified as sources of career information among secondary school students. Furthermore, the results revealed a significant difference between re-categorized career and sex with a large effect size of, 2 (1, n = 299) = 36.821, p =.005, phi =.-351).

Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference between recategorized career and subject specialization, with a large effect size of 2 (1, n = 299) = 17.753, p =.005, phi =.-255). Furthermore, findings revealed a significant difference between recategorized career and school with a large effect size of; 2 (4, n = 299) =23.812, p =.005, cramer’s v =.282).

It was also discovered that there is a statistically significant difference in career preference between males (M= 39.22, SD= 5.79) and females (M= 36.4, SD=5.82; t (297) = 4.17, p=.005). However, it was determined that there was no link between gender stereotyping beliefs and career path.
Gender stereotyping, gender, career choice, and traditional beliefs are some of the keywords.

I.  INTRODUCTION
Gender stereotyping refers to broad categories that reflect our perceptions and beliefs about males and females. Stereotypes (whether based on gender, ethnicity, or other groupings) all refer to the image of a typical member of a specific social category.

Gender stereotyping is classified into four dimensions: traits, physical characteristics, behavior, and occupations. Labels such as soft or hard are the result of stereotypes. Women may be labeled as “soft,” while men may be labeled as “hard.” However, once labels are assigned, they are exceedingly difficult to remove. Many stereotypes, on the other hand, are so broad and ambiguous (Almiskry et al., 2009).

Gender stereotypes stem from gender s, which define the s of men and women. Males’ s are classified as masculine, while females’ s are classified as feminine. In a given society, both men and women are expected to perform certain tasks. The society or culture in which an individual lives essentially constructs these s. These s are determined by the individual’s gender.

Females are identified with s such as child care, cooking, and food production, whereas males are identified with s such as family protection, house construction, paid employment, cash crop production, and business (Archer & Lloyd 2002).

alization refers to the process by which an individual learns and accepts s. alization works by encouraging desired behavior and discouraging undesirable behavior.

In societies, socialization agencies such as family, schools, peer groups, and the media make it clear to children what behavioral norms they are expected to follow, and once someone has accepted a set of behavioral norms, they are typically very important to the individual. As a result, the internalization of these behaviors and beliefs, which are based on societal awareness and expectations, leads to a special interest, which influences vocational choices (Bender, 1994).

Women and men appear to have been raised in all societies, western and non-western, to believe in and adhere to gender s that are conveyed to them on a daily basis. These beliefs are so deeply ingrained in both men and women that they extend to vocational choices (Otunga, 1996).

According to Nasania (2004), the greater the consistency, duration, and intensity with which others promote a definition about an actor, the greater the likelihood that the actor will embrace that definition as truly applicable to himself/herself (324).

This appears to be the case in societies with young females or males. For example, Jacobs (2005) argues along these lines when he claims that it is not only overt socialization or covert prejudicial attitudes held by society that prevent females from entering skilled , but that the women themselves lack the courage to enter the field because the requirements for successful performance in such areas are incongruent with the way they see themselves.

According to Hansen (2009), external influences that influence an individual’s career choice are also influenced by significant others through social support from peers. According to Young (1999), young adults learn about and explore careers through interaction with the contexts of family, school, and community, which ultimately leads to their career choice. According to Zacharia (2008), adolescents’ aspirations are influenced by their parents’ aspirations or expectations.

Parental encouragement and support are important factors that have been found to influence career choice. Children may choose what their parents want just to please them (Sounders (1999).

According to Zacharia (2008) and Nasania (2004), in Tanzania, rural students seek help from parents more than urban students, and parents, rather than teachers, play a major in students’ career choices. In general, traditional gender stereotyping, parents, and friends, among other factors, influence career choice; however, variations occur from one population to the next.

Every year, form four secondary school students in Tanzania make their career choices prior to sitting for their final Tanzania Certificate of Secondary Examination. Because admissions into various careers are determined by grades obtained from the Tanzania Certificate of Secondary Education, the outcome of this final examination determines who joins Alevel or other tertiary level education.

Students are frequently given a list of careers from which to choose prior to making their career decisions. Most students lack adequate information about various careers, so the decisions they make are based on traditional gender stereotyping and the subjects they study in secondary school.

Students’ only support within the school comes from career masters or counselors, as they are commonly referred to, and teachers, who are expected to support students in their career choice. When the Ministry of Education releases the final examination results, and depending on the grades, students are admitted to the A-level and other tertiary education levels based on the career choices that they made while in school.

When these students graduate from tertiary education or universities, some of them enter occupations that are completely different from the ones for which they had chosen and trained. The goal of this study was to look at the effects of gender stereotyping on adolescent career choices.

II. THE PROBLEM’S MENT
Most secondary school students lack accurate information about occupational opportunities to assist them in making appropriate career choices, and as a result, some of them rely on traditional gender stereotyping beliefs. It was common practice in the past to turn feudalism into a family affair, with the son of a blacksmith destined to become a blacksmith and a feudal born a leader.

However, industrialization and post-industrialization have made it possible for the average person to become richer as long as she or he possesses the necessary skills and knowledge (Tomlinson, & Evans 1999). Today, in order to adapt to changing socioeconomic conditions, one must not only conduct thorough career planning but also extensive career research before making a career choice (Tomlinson, & Evans 1999).

One of the serious challenges in Tanzanian public schools is the influence of gender stereotyping on secondary school students’ career choices. Cultural beliefs about gender s among adolescents and the community at large are one of the factors that may influence the correct career path for many secondary school students in Tanzania today.

The current study sought to investigate the effects of traditional gender stereotyping beliefs on secondary school students’ career choice, specifically based on knowledge of career requirements, the relationship between students’ beliefs in traditional gender s and their career choice, career availability and aspiration, portray career by gender, and the relationship between social class and career.

choice. This is especially important given how little progress has been made in Tanzania in this area.

III. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study’s goal was to investigate the effects of gender stereotyping on career choice among Tanzanian secondary school students. The study specifically sought to examine secondary school students’ knowledge of career requirements, gender differences in career choice among secondary school students, and the extent to which gender stereotyping beliefs influence career choices among secondary school students in Moshi rural.

IV. QUESTIONS FOR
The following research questions guided this study:
I Do secondary school students have a sufficient understanding of career requirements?
(ii) What is the gender difference in secondary school students’ career choices?
(iii) To what extent do gender stereotyping beliefs influence secondary school students’ career choices?

V. THE STUDY’S IMPORTANCE
The findings of this study are expected to serve as the foundation for developing a career counseling intervention program to reduce gender stereotyping among secondary school students. More importantly, the findings of this study are expected to assist secondary school students in making rational career choices free of stereotyped perceptions.

The findings are also expected to serve as the foundation for future research on gender stereotyping and student career choice in Tanzania. The findings of the study are also expected to contribute new knowledge to the field of social psychology as well as to the existing literature on career choice in Tanzania.

THE ECT OF STEREOTYPING ON CAREER CHOICE AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS

 

 

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