Project Materials

GENERAL

THE EFFECT OF ANTIBODY TESTING ON THE SPREAD OF CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19) IN NIGERIA

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PROJECT INFORMATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Antibody testing for corona virus (COVID-19) is beginning to gain popularity in the whole world. Countries like Germany, USA, and UK etc have all started devising measures to carry out an effective antibody testing with aim to ensure to the containment of the spread of corona virus (COVID-19).

According to W.H.O, (2020) stated that there is no evidence that antibody testing shows that recovered patient from the corona virus (COVID-19) are immune to corona virus (COVID-19). The patient recovered can also become positive again to corona virus (COVID-19) (Fauci, 2020).

Most of the developed countries like Germany and United States of American (USA) have all set up plans to reopen the country’s economy (CNN, 2020). The urgency of massive antibody testing came up as a result of the pressure on the federal government and the state government by the masses especially the small business owners to re-open the nation’s economy.

According the Guardian, (2020) stated that unverified antibody testing could result in the risk of increasing the spread of corona virus (COVID-19). The result of the antibody testing cannot guarantee immunity to the corona virus (COVID-19) patients and those that have recovered from the virus (WHO, 2020).

The PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 have been available since January, immediately after the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified. However, the technology behind antibody tests is fundamentally distinct and generally harder to get right. “If you have a sequence today, you have a PCR tomorrow”, says Linfa Wang, (2020) director of Duke-NUS Medical School’s programme in emerging infectious diseases, in Singapore.

In Nigeria today, the methods for the containment of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) are still testing for infection, contact tracing and social distancing. The antibody testing might have started in some part of the country but on a very low scale. The socio economic status of people in Nigeria is really a major clog on the progress of the use of social distancing. It is against this background that the researcher wishes to examine the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The outbreak of corona virus (COVID-19) is very disturbing; there are several approaches used by the whole world to see how to contain the virus. One of the most recommended method is the use of social distancing and lockdown but these two methods seems not enough as the cases keep rising. The introduction of antibody testing was believed to be a way to determine the infected cases so as to quickly separate them from the healthy population. But the issue with the antibody testing especially for developing countries like Nigeria is the lack of adequate resources to engage in antibody testing. Another issue here is most of the antibody testing labs or setups are not verified. Secondly the time frame for the result of the antibody test result to be out; a patient that is infected, while waiting for the result of the antibody test will mix with the healthy population even without knowing whether he/she is positive until his/her result is out. Lastly there have been series of studies on corona virus (COVID-19) but not even a single study has been carried out on antibody testing. It is to this regard that the study is based on the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to determine the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are:

1.  to determine the relationship between antibody testing and the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria

2.  to examine whether antibody testing is effective in the control of the spread of the corona virus (COVID-19)

3.  to examine whether there is any corona virus (COVID-19) antibody testing in Nigeria

4.  to determine the methods used in the treatment of corona virus (COVID-19) patients in Nigeria

5.  to investigate the factors affecting antibody testing in the control of the spread of corona virus (COVID-19)

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The following research questions guide the objectives of the study:

1.    What is the relationship between antibody testing and the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria?

2.  Is antibody testing effective in the control of the spread of the corona virus (COVID-19)?

3.  Is there any corona virus (COVID-19) antibody testing in Nigeria?

4.  What are the methods used in the treatment of corona virus (COVID-19) patients in Nigeria?

5.  What are the factors affecting antibody testing in the control of the spread of corona virus (COVID-19)?

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

H0: there is no significant relationship between antibody testing and the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria

H1: there is significant relationship between antibody testing and the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study on the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria will be of immense benefit to Nigeria and her citizen. The study will explore corona virus (COVID-19) antibody testing. The findings of the study will show whether the antibody testing is effective or not. The study will proffer other methods that could help in the spread of the corona virus (COVID-19). The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 The study will cover on the effect of antibody testing on the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) in Nigeria.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

ANTIBODY: An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses

CORONA VIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19):

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

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