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THE EFFECT/IMPACT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ULI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

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THE EFFECT/ OF PHYSICAL PLANNING ON RURAL IN ULI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Everybody plans to achieve objective therefore planning is rational, goal oriented, future oriented and action oriented. Physical planning which is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out development, a careful thought should be given to the natural environmental, social, economic, and political; governance factors and providing an alternative frame work to achieve sustainable outcomes.

This concept of physical planning has been described as a process aimed at achieving orderly physical development with the overall aim of evolving a functional and liveable environment where individual and common goals can be achieved.

Physical planning in rural areas is to ensure that rural activities are organized and developed in physical space with due consideration for the protection of the public interest which include health, safety, efficiency, energy conservation, convenience,  social equity, social choice, environmental quality and amenity which are also features of sustainable development.

The objective of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) programme which included sustainable land use planning was to provide for the land requirements of human settlement growth through environmentally sound physical planning so as to ensure access to land to all households in the required area.

Oyesiku (2009) argued that planning practice in Nigeria was not creating spatially sustainable new settlement and cites because planning is like preventative medicine whereas professional planners in the country have spent the last generation focusing on curative medicine.

Physical planning concerns itself with the decision making processes where they are required for managing relationships that exist within and between natural systems and human systems.

Physical planning endeavors to manage these processes in an effective, orderly, transparent and equitable manner for the benefit of all constituents within such systems for the present and for the future.

Present day physical planning practices are the result of continuous refinement and expansion of the scope of such decision making processes. Some of the main elements of present day physical planning are:

  • Social & economic development
  • Rural/Urban development
  • Regional development
  • Natural resource management & integrated land use
  • Infrastructure systems
  • Governance frameworks

The assessment of physical planning encompass areas such as land use, socioeconomics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual ies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated physical planning assessment.

The underlying value system has essentially been an economic market model. Ogu and Adeniji (2011) observe that the extent to which human communities both urban and rural, but particularly the urban, are sustainable may well depend on the management of such settlements. Physical planning is a key component of rural/urban management.

Rural sustainability is directly influenced by land use controls which ensure efficient use is made of rural land and the acquisition and development of land is the basis of physical growth.

The argument on physical planning has brought to the fore the question of physical and socioeconomic development in rural areas as majority of the rural areas fall under customary land. Closely tied to this debate are the issues of planning and the role it plays in ensuring poverty eradication and sustainable rural development.

Poverty is most prevalent in rural areas where infrastructure is either inadequate or unavailable. The poor make up around 70% of total population and 80% of its rural population in Nigeria (Diangamo, 2013).

The result of untold poverty levels in rural areas has been the of rural dwellers to urban areas with the hope of employment and generally a better life which has created multiple effects. When these people that migrated from the rural settlements cannot afford decent shelter, they create shelter for themselves with their own initiatives and within their own resources.

Poor quality housing, lack of or inadequate health facilities, few schools, poor road and transport networks, poor functioning markets characterize Nigeria rural areas. Considering that setting up of such necessary infrastructure needs financial, physical as well and human resources in the man’s quest for socio-economic development and better quality of life, conditions obtaining in Nigeria, especially rural areas, for sustainable development are to a large extent lacking (Mukalula, ).

It is time to discuss planning and rural development in Nigeria in regional perspective. Although there is no regional development policy, the regional structure of Nigeria is an important factor in everyday decisions of the government and citizens.

The system of government is the result of regional differences, which are rooted in geographical and historical facts and are moulded by economic, social and cultural forces. Regional problems and disparities are the preoccupation of these levels of government.

The causes and effects of regional disequilibrium constitute an important area of y – for example, unemployment, growth-rates, income, and rural development. This research will be restricted to the development of rural areas and planning at a very minimal level.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Rural areas in Nigeria, over the years, have been observed to have suffered from utter neglect (Mabogunje, 2014) and exhibit what has been aptly described as 3Ds namely: depression, degradation and deprivation.

The colonial administrators consistently adopted a nonchalant, yet exploitative attitude towards rural development through neglect, through meagre budget allocation to rural sector and through failure to provide rural amenities and facilities (Falade 2011).

Viewed against the background of the fact that rural areas in Nigeria provides for over 70% of the population and accounted for 84% of the Nation’s GDP at independence and about 60% as at 1965, the neglect suffered by the rural areas is pathetic and inexcusable.

The process of rural development is one that has been given some priority by governments at all levels – Federal, State and Local – in Nigeria especially from the early 1970s when increased public revenue from crude oil enabled the government to increase public spending substantially.

Until the seventies, efforts at rural development planning focused on the agricultural sector, particularly cash crops. The aim was to generate surpluses for export in order to support investment in infrastructural development and financing manufacturing

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this y is to examine the effect/impact of physical planning or rural development. Other general objectives of the y are:

  1. To examine how to achieve sustainable rural development in Uli L.G.A
  2. To examine the Challenges of achieving sustainable development in rural communities
  3. To examine the impact of physical planning on rural development in Uli L.G.A.
  4. To examine the role of physical planning in the development of rural communities in Uli L.G.A.
  5. To examine the relationship between physical planning and rural development in Uli L.G.A
  6. To examine the solution to the challenges faced in achieving sustainable development in rural communities in Uli L.G.A.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. In what ways can sustainable development be achieved in Uli L.G.A
  2. What are the Challenges of achieving sustainable development in rural communities?
  3. Is there a significant impact of physical planning on rural development in Uli L.G.A?
  4. What are the roles of physical planning in the development of rural communities in Uli L.G.A?
  5. What is the relationship between physical planning and rural development in Uli L.G.A?
  6. What are the solutions to the challenges faced in achieving sustainable development in rural communities in Uli L.G.A?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1

H0: There is no significant impact of physical planning on rural development in Uli L.G.A.

H1: There is a significant impact of physical planning on rural development in Uli L.G.A.

Hypothesis 2

H0: There is no significant relationship between physical planning and rural development in Uli L.G.A.

H1: There is a significant relationship between physical planning and rural development in Uli L.G.A.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Rural development need to be looked into closely with relevant environmental objectives and targets if they are to effectively progress towards physical planning. This y seeks to draw attention to rural environment for planning and development.

There are many people that will benefit from this research. Both the young and the old will gain a lot of things from this work. This research will be of advantage to everybody in the community because the knowledge of how to provide solution to community’s problems will be acquired.

The knowledge of physical planning, role they played in community building and development will be known. The research is organized in such a way that will highlight the role played by the government in community development.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The y focuses on the effect/impact of physical planning on rural development using Uli Local Government Area of Anambra as a case y.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this y with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the .

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Planning: This is the process of making plans for something.

Physical planning: Is a design exercise that uses the land use plan as a framework to propose the optimal physical infrastructure for a settlement or area, including infrastructure for public services, transport, economic activities, recreation, and environmental protection

Development: Is the process of developing or being developed.

Rural Development: Is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.

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THE EFFECT/IMPACT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ULI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE
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