The study was aimed at analyzing students perceived effect on the use of contraceptive technology in tertiary institution, a case study of Taraba state. The survey research was used in this study to sample the opinion of respondents. This method involved random selection of respondent who were administered with questionnaires. The target population of the study comprised of students of selected tertiary institutions in Taraba state. The questionnaire administered was one hundred and ten (110) copies and one hundred copies retrieved which constitute the sample size. The descriptive and analytical approach was adopted using Chi-square to test and analyze the hypotheses earlier stated. The findings revealed that peer influence has a significant effect on the use of contraceptive technology among students in tertiary institution in Taraba state and there is a significant relationship between contraceptive use and student’s academic performance. It was therefore concluded from the findings that that a significant proportion of the students are quite knowledgeable about different methods of contraceptive. Majority of them reported a universal knowledge of many of the methods presented to them for identification. It was recommended that the scope of sex education should be structured to cover all aspects of individual’s sex life considering the fact that some adolescents are naturally sexually active.
1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
Despite confirmed high rates of sexual activity and increased knowledge of contraceptive technology, several studies indicate that the rate of contraceptive usage among Nigerian youths has remained poor over time (Nwokocha, 2017). In terms of reproductive health, students in Nigerian tertiary institutions are considered an especially high-risk category (Orji and Esimai 2015; Nwokocha, 2017; Attahir, Sufiyan, Abdulkadir, and Haruna, 2010; Wusu, 2010; Omoyeni, Akinyemi and Fatusi, 2012).Sex, social and traditional values, and sexual orientation are some of the factors that affect contraceptive technology adoption. The global growth in the occurrence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended births, as well as the negative consequences these patterns have on the world’s population, has put contraception on the global agenda. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an unprecedented 24.4 million women worldwide have abortions per year, with young people responsible for nearly half of all abortion-related deaths in Africa (WHO, 2014). Unwanted births have been linked to both unprotected sexual activity and contraceptive malfunction, also known as “contraceptive crash.” Per year, an estimated 498 million cases of STIs was caused by unprotected intercourse and contraceptive incidents among young couples (WHO, 2011). In contrast to developing countries, Nigeria has suffered high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and maternal mortality as a result of illegal abortions in response to unintended pregnancies over the years. In Nigeria, illegal abortions and the proliferation of STIs are now two of the most pressing problems affecting young people’s reproductive health. Nigerian adolescents (young adults between the ages of 18 and 25) make up the bulk of those at risk of unwanted pregnancies and STI infection. Furthermore, owing to Nigeria’s stringent abortion law, abortions are typically performed in secret, resulting in complications that may result in health risks or even death for the woman. Efficient contraception may greatly minimize, if not totally remove, these health risks.
Birth control, also known as contraception, anti conception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century.
The university environment is a miniature world in which different demographic categories: males, females, Adolescents and young adults, adults, elders, students, lecturers, administrative staff, and many other relate with a focus on knowledge production and dissemination. The social arrangement in most university environments does not only bring both sexes together at the point of learning, it greatly enhances contact among them well beyond the level permitted in the pre-university milieu. Unbridled social contact experienced in many public universities tends to promote hetero-sexual activities beyond the platonic level among young people. Thus, studies that investigate sexual values among undergraduate students have shown that pre-marital hetero-sexual relations among a significant proportion of unmarried youth in Nigerian higher institutions (Ortese, 2019; Aziken, Okonta and Ande, 2013), Ethiopia (Kibret, 2013) and South Africa (Chappell, Rule, Dlamini and Nkala, 2014; Hogue and Ghuman, 2011) are high and rising. Sadly, undergraduate students engaging in such pre-marital sex do not consider it any wrong doing (Laah, 2010). In fact, many of them tend to have unpredictable sexual lifestyles often involving multiple partners with or without the benefit of contraceptive protection (Hoque and Ghuman, 2011, Ortese, 2019, Peltzer, Pengpid and Peltzer, 2018). However, while risk-taking sexual behavior or sexual experimentation exposes young people to reproductive tract infections including STIs and unplanned pregnancy, there seem to be a low contraceptive behavior among those that are at the risk. Obono and Mohammed (2010) observed that contraceptive knowledge and use among sexually active undergraduate students in Nigeria is abysmally low. This is not a surprising observation because a survey carried out by Nicholas et al (2012) on undergraduate student’s sexuality and contraceptive adoption showed that “a significant proportion of young unmarried population in Ibadan is sexually active, that a substantial minority of adolescent engaging in sexual relations are doing so without benefit of contraceptive protection.”. Discussions with the students about why teenagers do not use contraceptive reveal unrealistic fear and demonstrated abundance of misinformation”. Consequently, the paper examines students’ contraceptive knowledge and practice among undergraduate students.
More than 200 million women in developing countries would like to delay their next pregnancy or even stop bearing children altogether (Singh et al, 2013), but many of them still rely on traditional and less effective methods of contraception or use no method at all. Those who do not use any contraceptive method may lack access or face barriers to using contraception (Singh et al, 2013). These barriers include lack of awareness, lack of access, cultural factors, religion, opposition to use by partners or family members, and fear of health risks and side effects of contraceptives, peer influence (Carr and Khan 2014). In Nigeria, unintended intercourse is the primary cause of unwanted pregnancies, and many women with unwanted pregnancies decide to end them by abortion (Otoide, Oronsaye and Okonofua 2011). It is an abomination in most cultures in Nigeria for a girl to marry with a pregnancy or to marry after giving birth to a child hence, the high rate of unsafe abortions. Since abortion is illegal in Nigeria (unless medically recommended to save a mother’s life) many abortions are carried out in an unsafe environment. The major religions in Nigeria teach against contraception because they easily equate it with termination of life (abortion). Hence the clergymen are not ready to preach on family planning using contraceptives. The consequences of these clandestine abortions are grave and can be life-threatening, often leading to maternal death. Abortions account for 20%–40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria (Abiodun and Balogun 2019). The oral contraceptive pills are the most easily accessible contraceptives but a significant problem in Nigeria is a general lack of adequate information about the combined oral contraceptive pills (OCP). The myth that prolonged use of the OCP leads to permanent sterility has limited its use in Nigeria and may explain why most young females in Nigeria, especially students, prefer to use abortion instead of contraception for unwanted pregnancy (OyeAdeniran et al 2014). Also, the protective effects of OCPs are virtually unknown by the majority of women in the Nigerian population (Grubb 1987). Family planning has had a major impact in countries like Indonesia and Mauritius, which has been attributed to early presidential support and the continued commitment of national and local leaders (Mize and Byrant 2016; Adekunle and Otolorin 2010). The Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (DHS-2013) results revealed that Nigerian women are now marrying late, are more interested in acquiring a formal education or acquiring personal source of income and are commonly not abstaining from having premarital sex (National Population Commission National Population Commission 2014).Young people in general are sexually active and tertiary institutions’ students form a significant high-risk group in any society. The youth in this age group are most often at the beginning of exploration of their sexuality, very often free of parental guidance, under great peers influence, and often indulging in alcohol or other influential illegal substances. Tertiary institutions’ students on the other hand, by virtue of their level of education, probably form a group in any community, which should have an overall higher level of awareness of available methods of contraception.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although globally the level of contraceptive use is considered low compared to contraceptive awareness, certain societies have recorded higher prevalence of contraceptive use than others. The WHO in 2011 reported the general prevalence of contraceptive use to be higher in countries in Latin America, at an estimated 63%, than in countries in Africa at an estimated 20%, with the rate of nonuse highest in sub-Saharan African countries. The rate of contraceptive use among the Nigerian population was reported at approximately 12% (Monjok, Smesny, Ekabua, and Essien, 2010). Nigeria’s Population Reference Bureau (PRB) reported in 2011 that only about 29% of Nigerian youth use contraceptives; in spite of reported high rates of sexual activities and increased awareness of contraceptive technologies (Akani, et al, 2018; Fatusi and Blum, 2018: Cadmus and Owoaje, 2010: Tayo et al, 2011: Osakinle et al, 2013; Adeniji, Tijani and Owonikoko, 2013). These studies reveal that youths are generally aware of the existence of contraceptive methods and the benefits accruing from using contraceptives. However, this awareness is not reflected in the actual utilization of these methods, thereby leading to increase in the incidence of STIs and unsafe abortions resulting from unwanted pregnancies.Similar findings indicating low contraceptive use were found among students in Nigerian tertiary institutions, thus indicating that students are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies and the contraction of STIs (Orji and Esimai 2015; Nwokocha, 2017; Attahir, Sufiyan, Abdulkadir, and Haruna, 2010; Wusu, 2010; Omoyeni, Akinyemi and Fatusi, 2012). Studies suggest that the high degree of social freedom in tertiary institutions in Nigeria affords students the opportunity to engage in sexual activities; in some cases this could also be triggered by the desire to acquire material gains (Nwokocha 2017; Wusu, 2010). The risk related to the high rates of sexual activity and low contraceptive usage among Nigerian students (especially unwanted pregnancy and STIs) are among the most serious health risks that young people face and can endanger not only their physical health but also their economic, emotional and social well-being (Ebuehi, Ekanem and Ebuehi, 2016)
This study was conducted among students oftertiary institutions, located within Taraba state in Northern Nigeria. It is hoped that the findings from this study will be useful for informing policy and practice in tertiary institutions in Taraba and by extension, other institutions of higher learning in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In line with the statement of research problems the objectives of the study is to determine student’s perceived effect on the use of contraceptive technology in tertiary institution in Taraba state. The objectives therefore are:
1) Toassess the level of awareness of undergraduate students towards the use of contraceptive technology in tertiary institutions
2) To examine the factors that influences the use of contraceptive technology among undergraduate students of tertiary institutions in Taraba state
3) To examine the effect of organization factors on the use of contraceptive technology among undergraduate students in tertiary institution in Taraba state
4) To examine the myths and misconceptions about the use of contraceptive technology among young people.
5) To recommend ways of improving the safe use of contractive technology among young people
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What is the level of awareness of undergraduate students towards the use of contraceptive technology in tertiary institutions?
2) What are the factors that influence the use of contraceptive technology among undergraduate students of tertiary institutions in Taraba state?
3) What is the effect of organization factors on the use of contraceptive technology among undergraduate students in tertiary institution in Taraba state?
4) What are the myths and misconceptions about the use of contraceptive technology among young people?
5) What are the ways of improving the safe use of contraceptive among young people?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HO:Peer influence does not have a significant effect on the use of contraceptive technology among students in tertiary institution in Taraba state
H1:Peer influence has a significant effect on the use of contraceptive technology among students in tertiary institution in Taraba state
H0: There is no significant relationship between contraceptive use and student’s academic performance.
H1: There is a significant relationship between contraceptive use and student’s academic performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study would enable the researcher to pass their experience on the subject matter to parents,emerging young adults, Non-Government organization, schools (students)to serve as a medium for further research
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would cover the experiences of Students Perceived Effect on the Use of Contraceptive Technology in Tertiary Institution. The study would encompass undergraduate students in tertiary institution in Taraba state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was faced with the following constraints in carrying out this study:
Time: The time within the researcher is too short to carry on the detail study on this topic.
Resources: Another constraint of the researcher is financial resources to carry on the detail study of this topic.
Data: Another limitation to this study will be lack of data to make valid study on the research problem.
1.9 OPREATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY:A contraceptive is a device or drug that prevents a woman from becoming pregnant. Some contraceptives prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation. Women who do not wish to become pregnant might consider using contraceptives.
CONTRACEPTION:The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse. The major forms of artificial contraception are: barrier methods, of which the commonest is the condom or sheath; the contraceptive pill, which contains synthetic sex hormones which prevent ovulation in the female; intrauterine devices, such as the coil, which prevent the fertilized ovum from implanting in the uterus; and male or female sterilization. “one of the most important methods of contraception”
STUDENTS:A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field.In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.
TERTIARY EDUCATION:Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges.
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