Prospective evaluation of “XY” field in southwestern offshore Niger Delta was carried out with a view to delineate the structural and stratigraphic traps present in the study area.
The research methodology involved horizon and fault mapping to produce subsurface structural maps. Attributes used to analyze the field under study includes: Variance time slice which was used to illuminates the main fault structure on the field and aid as guide to proper mapping. Similarly, this was used to delineate the orientation of the fault across the field while Wireline log signatures were employed to identify hydrocarbon bearing sands. The data set used consists of Petrel simulation software 2013, general well data, well heads, well logs, well tops, checkshot, 3-D Siesmic in SEGY format.
Three (3) hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were identified and they fall within the Agbada Formation (Reservoir 1, 2, and 3), with gross thickness ranging from 50ft to 123ft. Besides, due to the fact that the sands aren‟t entirely clean the three reservoirs have a net thickness ranging from 40ft to 100ft. Three (3) major faults were mapped on the seismic inlines, two were major faults while the last one was a minor fault. After mapping the faults, horizons were picked along the seismic inlines and xlines and a two way time graph was plotted to generate a linear function.
The amplitude attribute overlay time slice generated conform to structure which indicate accumulation of hydrocarbon. The high amplitude zone also doubled as the boundary of the hydrocarbon reservoirs (fluid contact) as they also conform to structure. The prospect can be chosen from any portion of the high amplitude zone recognized in the study.
Title page i
Table of Content vi-viii
List of Figures ix-x
List of Tables xi
CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND TO STUDY
Introduction 1Justification 3Aims and Objectives 3Location and Geomorphology of the study area 3
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction 4Regional geology of the area 7Stratigraphy of the Niger delta basin 7Tectonic setting of the Niger delta 14
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SEISMOLOGY
3.3.1 Spontaneous potential log223.3.2 Gamma ray log223.3.3 Resistivity log223.3.4 Formation density log203.3.5 Neutron log233.4Presentation and analysis of seismic data243.5Interpretation Procedure25 3.5.1 Well correlation25 3.5.2 Seismic to well tie25 3.5.3 Mapping of fault26 3.5.4 Mapping of reflection horizons26 3.5.5 Loop tying of horizons26 3.5.6 Time depth conversion curve27 3.5.7 Contouring27 3.5.8 Generation of structural maps28
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
IntroductionSeismic interpretation294.2.1 The base map294.3 Well correlation panel of hydrocarbon reservoirs324.3.1 Identified reservoirs344.4 Computed thickness of the reservoir384.5 Seismic interpretation404.5.1 Structural interpretation on seismic section364.6 Time structural maps44Depth structural maps 47Attribute extraction with depth overlay 50
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion 52Recommendation 52
Figures 1.1 Map of Niger delta 22.1 Map of Nigeria showing the Sedimentary Basins9 2.2 Niger delta petroleum system 112.3 Diagram showing a Growth fault 133.1 Diagram showing the direction of propagation of seismic waves 173.2a Diagram showing Seismic Acquisition on land 193.2b Diagram showing Seismic Acquisition on water 193.3 Seismic interpretation procedures20 4.0The Base map of the study area showing inlines and crosslines and the location of the twowells 314.1 Well correlation panel showing the two wells and the reservoirs. 334.2a Well correlation panel showing the first reservoir across the two wells36 4.2b Well correlation panel showing the second reservoir across the two wells 364.2c Well correlation panel showing the third reservoir across the two wells 374.3a 3-D view of the variance time slice showing the three faults in the area 414.3b Xline panel showing the three fault planes in the area 414.3c 3-D view of inline and crossline on seismic structural smooth (realized) timeslice.424.3d Inline panel of the seismic showing the interested horizons. 424.3e 3-D view of the interpreted horizon 434.4a Time structural map of Reservoir 1 454.4b Time structural map of Reservoir 2 454.4c Time structural map of Reservoir 3 464.5a Depth structural map of reservoir 1 484.5b Depth structural map of reservoir 2 48c Depth structural map of reservoir 3 49Amplitude attribute overlay on map 51
Inline and Cross line numbers with their corresponding coordinate 30Showing the gross thickness, net thickness and net/gross of Reservoir 1 39Showing the gross thickness, net thickness and net/gross of Reservoir 2 39Showing the gross thickness, net thickness and net/gross of Reservoir 3 39
The Niger Delta is one of the World‟s largest Tertiary delta systems and an extremely prolific hydrocarbon province (Doust, 1990). For any successful hydrocarbon exploration, there must be a detailed economic evaluation and production planning of optimum recovery method for the new accumulation or reservoir.
Reservoir dimension is a very important factor that affects the quantity of hydrocarbon that can be produced from the reservoir, Schlumberger (1989).
A full assessment of hydrocarbon potential involves evaluation of the field and ranking of all identified prospects. Hydrocarbons are found in geologic traps, that is, any combination of rock structure that will keep oil and gas from escaping either vertically or laterally. These traps can either be structural, stratigraphic or a combination of both (Doust and Omatsola, 1979). Decision-making by oil managers could then be based on the results of the estimates.
Petrophysical analysis involves identification and qualification of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the subsurface and evaluation of its fluid properties. A major application of petrophysics is in studying reservoirs for the hydrocarbon industry.
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