1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Providing facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces is a major source of disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2007), and sanitation is a big issue around the world. Increasing household and community sanitation has been found to have a major influence on health (WHO 2007). Cleaning up after oneself by removing garbage and disposing of waste water are also included in the definition of sanitation.
SSHE is defined by UNICEF, IRC (1988), and Coppens (2005) as a combination of hardware and software components required to create a healthy school environment for the development or support of safe hygiene practices. Water supply and hand washing facilities as well as safe excreta and solid waste disposal in and around the school compound are included in their list of essential hardware components.
The actions that enhance school settings and school staff and student behaviours that assist prevent water and sanitation-related diseases and parasites are the software components. It has been shown that health affects both learning and health. (Snel 2004; Water Aid Uganda 2013) Approximately 1.5 million students die each year from diarrhea, which is caused by poor sanitation.
Smart investments in sanitation, on the other hand, can help reduce disease, raise family incomes, keep children in school, aid in environmental preservation, and improve human dignity, among other things. More and more research suggests that sanitation and hygiene teaching in schools has a good return on investment (Danida, 2007). Health and hygiene education programs have not always lived up to their promises, especially in rural areas where there is less access to health care.
Many rural school environments are unsafe for students because of a lack of attention to health facility operations and maintenance. The students may not have received adequate hygiene education. Among other things, these schools are plagued by a lack of or insufficient access to clean water, sanitation, and hand washing facilities, as well as toilets and latrines that aren’t equipped to meet the needs of students, particularly female students. Water contamination and poor sanitation and hygiene are the leading causes of diarrhea, according to the World Health Organization (2007).
As a result of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions, many of these schools also have high rates of child malnutrition and other health issues. School becomes a hazardous environment where infections might be spread (WHO, 2013). As a result, poor water, sanitation, and hygiene might impair students’ capacity to learn (Cairncross & Valdmanis, 2006).
Students’ capacity to learn and their future chances may be harmed if they suffer from bad health as a result of this (Clarke & King, 2004; Faheem & Yasir, 2007; ICF Macro 2010). It has been shown in studies such as Nokes & Bundy (2010) that students with worm infestations perform worse in school than their uninfected counterparts.
Basically, this means that pupils with severe worm infestations start out at a disadvantage and study at a slower pace; these students have just a few years of opportunity to benefit from a formal education. Sanitation and hygiene issues are of fundamental importance to both the nation as a whole, and to educational institutions, in particular.
Health and sanitation facilities were lacking at several public schools, as discovered by researchers on site visits. Students’ health and safety are jeopardized because of this condition and the school’s poor sanitary procedures, which are not dissimilar to those found in rural schools throughout many developing nations (WHO,2009).
Statement of the Problem (SOP)
Poor sanitation and hygiene are common problems in many low-income communities’ elementary schools since many lack toilets and waste disposal facilities. Those localities where individuals defecate openly, contaminating the environment and creating dangerous and disease-prone areas, are reflected in this picture. Poor sanitation had made pest control and trash disposal a challenge.
Our ecosystem is plagued by waste disposal, garbage disposal, and water shortages, especially in schools. There are a slew of contributing elements. A lack of hygiene instruction for children is one of the many issues that need to be addressed in order to ensure that kids have access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities, as well as clean and sanitary classrooms/school complexes.
These elements have had an effect on the well-being of college students. Cholera, diarrhea, malaria, and typhoid are only a few of the illnesses caused by poor sanitation and water availability. All of these illnesses have a significant impact on the well-being of kids.
Because they are unwell, students are unable to learn effectively. There isn’t even a dustbin or a sink for washing hands in these elementary schools. As a result of overuse by members of the local community, a few schools with toilets can’t keep them in a good condition.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE EXAMINATION
It is the primary goal of this study to assess the impact of cleanliness practices on kids. The following are some of the study’s more specific goals:
To discover the root reasons of shoddy sanitation in educational institutions.
To assess the level of hygienic procedures in educational institutions
To determine the impact of hygienic behaviors on the health of college students.
To see how much of a role school administrators have played in ensuring that students have access to adequate sanitation facilities.
To investigate the link between cleanliness practices and the health of pupils.
As a way to help schools improve their sanitary procedures.
INTEREST IN THE RESEARCH
Because cleanliness is next to godliness, the results of this study will help students better comprehend and foster the practice of maintaining a clean environment. The following persons will benefit from the findings: Students must learn about health and hygiene habits since cleanliness is next to godliness and also allows them to have a healthy body.
The findings will assist the government design rules that will help their kids keep the school environment clean and adhere to school laws. In addition, they act as a go-between for the school’s administration and its pupils. As a result of this research, school administrators will be able to provide adequate facilities for laborers to keep the school clean and neat, as well as funds to purchase disinfectant and antiseptic, as well as to compensate the laborers for their efforts
1.7 THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The research is based on the sanitary habits and their impact on the health of Edo State students in the L.G.A. of Ikpoba-Okha.
RESTRICTIONS ON THE STUDY
Insufficient funds can hinder a researcher’s ability to get important materials, literature, or information, as well as in the collecting of data (internet, questionnaire and interview).
In order to complete this study, the researcher must also work on other academic projects at the same time. As a result, less time will be spent conducting research.
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