Recycling of Polyethylene Waste Materials to Useful Products via Pyrolysis
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE 3
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 8
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 8
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 9
1.8 PLAN OF THE STUDY 9
CHAPTER TWO 11
LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 INTRODUCTION 11
2.2 CONCEPTUAL REVIEW 11
2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 18
2.4 EMPIRICAL REVIEW 21
CHAPTER THREE 24
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24
RESEARCH DESIGN 24
POPULATION OF THE STUDY 24
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 24
DATA COLLECTION 25
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT (QUESTIONNAIRE) 25
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 25
ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE 26
STATISTICAL TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS 26
CHAPTER FOUR: 28
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 28
4.1 INTRODUCTION 28
4.2 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 28
TABLE BASED ON RESEARCH QUESTION 32
4.3 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 40
CHAPTER FIVE 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43
5.1 INTRODUCTION 43
5.2 SUMMARY 43
5.3 CONCLUSION 44
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 46
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Recycling is a dynamic process that restores the life cycle of a material. Also recycling refers to as a process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into a new product. Recycling as well reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, water and air pollution and lower green house gas emission as compared to a plastic production. (Roach John 2003).
Polyethylene plastic bags are petroleum-based so the manufacturing process releases harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Some speculate that these emissions and other smog-related types of pollution accumulate over time in the atmosphere. Uioolk1
Countries and large corporations are beginning to realize the threat that these plastic bags pose to our planet. Many are proposing or have already enacted laws and taxes to decrease the use of polyethylene plastic bags. Many grocery stores are even rewarding customers for bringing reusable grocery bags as an alternative to these polyethylene plastic bags. Customers choosing not to use alternatives to plastic bags either find the alternatives are inconvenient or are simply unaware of the problem at hand.
Polyethylene recycling bags are currently being used all over the world but there is currently no environmentally friendly way to dispose of them.
The rate of consumption of plastic materials in the world is highly expanding, more waste plastics are generated. In past years, their generation amount in China becomes about six million per year, according to data from the National Institute of Environmental Research (Roach John 2005).
Typically, raw materials are manufactured into products for consumption. Leftovers are then thrown away. This linear process, from the extraction of raw materials, to production, then consumption and disposal, has created a waste crisis.
To reduce this one-way flow of re-sources to overburdened waste disposal facilities, materials no longer needed or wanted can be remanufactured. (Roach John 2003).
The objectives of this work are includes:-
(a). To collect the polyethylene waste materials (discarded water sachets plastic bottle )
(b). To carry out thermal pyrolysis of the materials at temperature of 300oC – 350oC
(c). To monitor the quantity of fuel gas and hydrocarbon liquids evolved
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance studies of recycling polyethylene waste materials via pyrolysis are:
It serve as an economics important to the society or nations
The recycling of polyethylene waste materials to useful appear intervene with our consuming society where it will be hard to imaging in modern society today without plastic which have found amyriad of used in fields as diverse as household appliance, packaging, construction, medicine and electronic.
The recycling of polyethylene waste help in an industrial production of plastic and polymer products such as sachet water, plastic bottle, rubber paint, e.t.c. As sources of raw materials to produces other useful product from those polyethylene waste materials.
It helps in prevent waste pollutant from an environment.
1.5 SCOPES OF THE STUDY
The research is restricted to the recycling of polyethylene products, arising specifically from Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). No attempt is made to suggest new production process. the study does not include of alternative materials.