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Title Page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v       

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ix


1.1     Background to the Study        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                  –        –        –        –        7

1.3     Purpose of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        8       

1.4     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        9

1.5     Research Questions       –        –        –        –        –        11     

1.6     Research Hypothesis     –        –        –        –        –        11

1.7     Scope/Limitation of the Study          –        –        –        –        12

1.8     Definition of Terms       –        –        –        –        –        12


2.1   Theoretical Framework  –        –        –        –        –        15

2.2   Conceptual Review        –        –        –        –        –        19     

2.2.1  The Concept of Basic Education       –        –        –        19

2.2.2  The Concept of Universal Basic Education          –        –        24

2.2.3  Objectives of UBE Programme         –        –        –        –        28

2.2.4  Problems of UBE Programme –        –        –        –        31

2.2.5  pects of UBE Programme –        –        –        –        39     

2.3     Review of Empirical Studies on UBE         –        –        –        41

2.4     Summary of Review         –        –        –        –        45


3.1     Design of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        47

3.2     Area of Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        48     

3.3     Population of the Study –        –        –        –        –        49

3.4     and Sampling Technique      –        –        –        49

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection         –        –        –        –        50

3.6     Validity of Instrument   –        –        –        –        –        50

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument    –        –        –        –        51

3.8     Scoring of Instrument    –        –        –        –        –        51

3.9     Source of Data Collection       –        –        –        –        51

3.10   Method of Data Collection      –        –        –        –        52

3.11   Method of Data Analysis        –        –        –        –        –        52     



4.1     Test of Hypothesis        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

4.2     Summary of Major Findings of the Study  –        –        73

4.3     Discussion of Findings  –        –        –        –        –        73



5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        78     

5.2     Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        82

5.3     Implications of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        83

5.4     Limitations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        85

5.5     Recommendations         –        –        –        –        –        –        85

5.6     Suggestion for Further Studies         –        –        –        –        86




The study explores the problems and of Universal Basic Education and the free and compulsory education programme in AkwaIbom State. It identifies among others poor planning, inadequate funding, the issue of population explosion, dearth of qualified teachers and infrastructural deficit as the major problems facing the implementation of the UBE objectives and the free and compulsory education scheme. The study employs descriptive survey research design which allows information to be generated from respondents through questionnaire. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to select 300 teachers which constituted the sample size. A reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained showing a high reliability of instrument. It also employs statistical tables and simple percentage to analyze data. The study uses chi-square (c2) to test hypothesis, the result thereof reveals that, there is a significant impact of the free and compulsory education on the rate of school dropout in AkwaIbom State hence, school dropout rate has reduce drastically. The study recommends that should strengthen the scheme by increasing its funding capacity, employ more teachers and build more classroom blocks. The study suggests that other studies be conducted on related areas like community mobilization and the of parents in the UBE and free and compulsory education programme in Akwa Ibom State.



1.1     Background to the Study

          Education has been regarded as the foundation to every human development hence; the United Nations (UN) sees it as a right to which all human beings are entitled. Over the years, the UN and its special agencies have been promoting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) especially to achieve free universal basic education for all children. Lee (2013) reported that most children in Africa have failed to have access to even basic education. Against this backdrop, the provision of basic education has become an increasing concern of at all levels. Often times, the concern of towards basic education have been followed by uncommitted zeal thereby making its implementation a haphazard exercise. However, attempt to implement basic education is in recognition of the fact that basic education is the first pillar of formal education in the educational system of any nation.

          According to Babatunde(2012), the UNESCO defines basic education as all forms of organized education and training that meet the basic learning needs of adults including literacy and numeracy, as well as the general knowledge, skills, values, and attitude that they require to survive, develop their capacities, live and work in dignify, improve the quality of their lives, make informed decisions and continue learning. In order to achieve basic education programme, the National Policy on Education statesthat such education shall be free and compulsory. It shall also include adult and non-formal education programmes at primary and junior Secondary Education levels for the adults and out of school youths.

          In Nigeria, the idea of free universal basic education was practically experimented in the western region of Nigeria under the premiership of late ObafemiOwolowo in 1955. Equally, the free universal primary education was lunched in the Eastern region in 1957 however; the first national universal primary education programme was introduced in 1976. According to Eddy and Akpan (2009) the packages associated with the UPE were among others, abolishment of school fees, reduction of the duration of study in the primary school from eight to six years, and an increased in funding to the tune of about 60% of the total budget. The era also witnessed a great influx of pupils in the primary school system.

          The compulsory free education Bill which was passed into law in 2004 stipulates that basic education means early childhood care education and nine years of formal schooling,Onwubiko (2012). Therefore, basic education embraces formal schooling and a variety of formal and informal public and private educationalprogrammes designed to meet the learning needs of people irrespective of age. Basic education also, within the framework of UBE Comprises of early childhood and pre-primary education, primary education, the first three years of secondary education, basic and functional literacy for school children, youths and adult nomadic education among others.

 Anaduaka and Okafor (2013) argued that, the national objectives with which the universal basic education scheme seeks to achieve include among others developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion. Besides this, it is to ensure the acquisition of the appropriate level of literacy, numeracy manipulation, communication and life skills as well as the ethics, morals and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.

 Consequently, Akwa Ibom State likes other states in the federation had established the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) to assist in the translation of the UBE national objectives into concrete actions to achieve policy outcomes at the state and local levels. Following the declaration of free and compulsory education in the state by the Chief Godswill Akpabio’s led administration in 2008, the scope of responsibility of SUBEB in the state has expanded correspondingly. Apart from the fact that SUBEB is responsible for ensuring effective implementation of the UBE programme, it is also expected to plan, ensure compliance with the programme guidelines and monitor the progress of the free and compulsory education throughout the 31 Local Government Areas of the state. Despite the fact that the UBE programme was being implemented in the state, it was until 2008 that the scheme had a face of a complete free and compulsion. As at 2007, fees and other charges were collected in public secondary schools. Equally, PTA levy, development leviesetc were also collected in the primary schools in the state.

The introduction of free and compulsory education scheme abolished the collection of all these charges, therefore started paying subvention to principals and Head-teachers of secondary and primary schools for the day-to day management of the schools. Under the scheme, has also constructed and renovated dilapidated schools buildings, provided textbooks which are distributed throughout the various schools in the state.It is therefore no doubt that the free and compulsory education scheme in public primary to secondary schools is a demonstration of commitment towards achieving the objective of UBE and education for all. However, the scheme has attracted increased enrolment of pupils and students in public primary and secondary schools. In 2010, report shows that the population of pupils increased from 751, 081 to over1,396, 878 in the primary school. Equally in the same year, the enrolment of students in public secondary school increased from 159, 280 to 318, 000.However, in the 2012/2013 school year the number increased to 584,912. The AkwaIbom State Ministry of education noted that, the UBE programme in the state has received a budgetary commitment of about 60,000,000 USD annually from the .(State Ministry of Education, Uyo). The problem of population explosion in schools has resulted in increased teacher-students ratio. Okon (2014) argued that only IbesikpoAsutan Local Government is able to meet the mandatory teacher-students ratio of 1:35 and 1:40. According to him, there are only 57 percent of the mandatory numbers of teachers intended to implement the loaded primary school segment of UBE curriculum in AkwaIbom State. This implies that only 57 percent of the pupil’s populations are actually exposed to teaching and 43 percent of the populations are not catered for.

          The implementation of the UBE programme according to Onwubiko (2012) is expected to be a collaborative effort, one which involves not only the three levels of but, the civil society organizations, international donor agencies, communities and private individuals. However, so far, there is a low mobilization of local community in partnershipwith for effective policy implementation.



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