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The investigates the effect of principal’s leadership behaviors and teacher’s morale in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. The study was carried out based on the following research questions and hypotheses.

(1)Which of these leadership styles is mostly practice by principals?

(2) What are the leadership factors affecting teacher morale?

(3) To what extend does the principal’s leadership behavior affects teacher morale?

Ho1: There is no significant different in the leadership styles among principals in .

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the principals leadership behavior and teacher morale. Thus, a total number of one hundred and ten  (110) respondents were sampled for this study.

The study was carried out using questionnaire which contains twenty-four items; mean score was used in analyzing the research question, whereas, chi-square and t-test were used in testing the hypothesis.

However, the finding reveals that principal’s leadership styles determine the level of teacher morale in the school. Hence principals exhibit different leadership styles. These styles influence the teacher morale negatively or positively. In view of the above finding, some recommendations and suggestions were made for further studies.


Education and educational theories are constantly evolving, new curriculum and new methods of improving educational programs offered to students. This has always been the concern of government at all tiers. However the present challenge is to find a better way to reach the students. In this regard, millions of naira is spend yearly in attempt to find new educational techniques and methods to meet these challenges.

The most fundamental concepts and ideas to improve the standard of education in Nigeria is by improving teachers motivation. Thus, Evans (1997), Hunter –Boykin and Evans (1995) described these feelings as morale which can greatly affects the motivation and achievement of both teachers and students.

It is imperative to note here that, teachers have the most contact with the students. Therefore, when teachers feel positive about their position, they tend to have a tremendous influence on their students. The reverse is also true; when teachers have negative feelings about the school, they negatively influence the school and the students; it is therefore pertinent for educational leaders and school principals to be aware of factors that affect teacher’s morale as that could equally affect student’s achievement.

In the same vein, educational organization as formal organization has stated desirable and achievable objectives. Hence, Nigeria government has adopted education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development (NPE 1998).

Thus, derive towards the development of a dynamic and self-renewing calls for the early preparation of children to enable them participate effectively in national growth. This requires both able management as well as highly motivated and hard working teachers.

This study is performed to address the two districts working teachers.
This study is performed to address the two districts areas in educational organization; the teacher morale and the behaviour of school principal. The way school principal orchestrates his teachers will go a long way to determine his or her teacher’s morale and the overall effectiveness of the school programs.

However, the role of the principals has drastically changed. Principals are no longer able to manage the schools and their employees. This is always seen in their leadership behavior and actions towards the teachers. Therefore in order to run the school effectively, the principals among other things should adopt a leadership style and blend some styles together to help him or her achieve the school objectives.

It is worth mentioning that the successful implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE) as stated in NPE (1998) depends largely on the teachers who are entrusted with the responsibility of unfolding the planned policy.

Thus, the importance of this heavy national responsibility cannot be over emphasized. The actual unfolding of this dream policy will actually come true when teacher have positive feelings towards their job.

With the increase in teacher responsibility and accountability of the heavy national duty entrusted to teacher to shape the future of this nation through effective prepared of the youth, the expectation of the teachers are to facilitate learning in the classroom, ensure that students grasp information, learn skills in order to perform well in standardize examination as well as shaping the young to be responsible members of the society.

Hence, with this shift to these higher accountability, teacher experience greater pressure and demands. These demands can be burdensome and cause teacher to have lower morale level or even quit the profession.

In line with this, teacher’s low morale can also be attributed to lack of efficient stimulating and satisfactory school administration cause by the principal leadership behavior. Thus, Ahupa and Dyikuk (2008) state that, harsh school rules and regulations impose on teachers bring frustration tension in them. This is also possible when human and material resources available to school are not efficiently utilized by the school principal.

In this regard, the principal has the power to influence many factors of the school. He or she has myriad of roles included in his job. Hence, the most important and influential of all these is the effect of the principal leadership behavior on the teachers.

Dyikuku (2005) observed that he principal position can influence the behavior of the staff members. However, principal; leadership behavior could be seen in his or her leadership style he or she patterns and designed to integrate the school objective and personal interest.

It is pertinent to note that, no organization can fully achieve its goals without the full co-operation of the human element. Therefore, it is important for principals to ensure their teachers feel they are supported in order to keep quality teacher in the profession and maintain morale in the demanding field of education Tyre & O’ Brien (2002).
Blasé and Blasé (1994) also stated that praise by the school principal provide teachers with increase efficiency self esteem and create greater motivation.


It has been observe that, some teachers appear dissatisfied, unhappy, uncommitted to their jobs under different principals. This group of teachers has lower morale towards their job. Thus, such groups of teachers are always prepared to quit the profession for greener pasture at the least opportunity.

However, some teachers portrayed these attitudes because the principal’s leadership style imposed on them. In line with this, Nwankwo (1984) and Gyang T.S (2009) affirmed that leadership in management can serve as an important factor in lowering or boosting staff morale.

This study is to examine the effect of the principal’s leadership behavior and teacher morale. Hence this study attempt to examine the principal’s leadership behavior and how it significantly affects teacher morale. In light of this, the study addressed the following research questions to evaluate the stated hypotheses bellow.


The growth and death of any school largely depend on the quality of the school head. The attainment of any objective depends on how the action of the school head or principal affects the teacher morale.

This study is perform to address the teacher morale and action of the school principal in the field of education. Therefore, the study intends to achieve the following objectives.

1.  To find out the leadership styles and behavior practiced by the school principals.

2.  To identify factors responsible for lower teacher morale.

3.  To find out the leadership style that enhances teacher morale.


i.            Which of these leadership styles is mostly practice by the principals?
ii.          What are the leadership factors that affect teacher’s morale?
iii.        To what extend those the principals leadership styles has impact on teacher’s morale?

i.            There is no significant difference in leadership style among principals in .
ii.          There is no significant relationship between the principal’s leadership behavior and teachers morale.

The study is significant to the field of education. It is built upon the available body of knowledge relating to teacher morale and principal’s leadership behaviors. Several studies have looked at the relationship between teachers morale and principal’s leadership behavior.

However, this study focuses on some selected in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. This is to provide an in depth looked into the challenged level of education.

Furthermore, the study is important to the school system, it can leads to the improvement in the principal’s program in order to raise the level of teachers morale.

The extend of this research will cover the principal’s leadership behavior and how it affects teacher morale in some selected in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.

In the cause of this study researcher intends to investigate and examine if the principal’s behavior affects teachers morale. This can be examine by asking survey questionnaire to analyze and interpret the responses of the respondents.

However, the scope of this study will only cover some selected in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. This is because the researcher encountered difficulties such as:-

i.            Time constraint
ii.          Inadequate finance
iii.        Inadequate materials
These problems made the researcher to restrict the study within this selected . However, it is believed that these selected will help the researcher unmasked this problem faced by teachers in most in Nigeria.





i.            School principal: He is the head or leader of who has the authority and power to delegate responsibility to other teachers.

ii.          School teacher: He is a person who teaches and carries out other non-teaching activities in the school to achieve school objectives.

iii.       Teacher morale: This is a professional interest and enthusiasm that a teacher displays towards achievement of goals and objectives of the school.

iv.    Leadership: This is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group towards goals setting and achievement.

v. Leadership style: This is a particular behavior or characteristics which a leader relates to his sub-ordinates.

vi. Principal’s leadership behavior: This is a particular leadership style exhibited by the school principal.


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