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GENERAL

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND NUTRIENT EVALUATION

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ABSTRACT
The screening and evaluation of the leaves of Baphia nitida was examined. The powdered sample of the leaves were used to determine parameters such as phytochemical screening (alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and terpenes); nutrient content (crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre, ash content, moisture content and CHO) and anti-nutrients (HCN, phytate, oxalate, tannins and saponins). The results of the phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins (1.01 ± 0.09), flavonoids (6.14 ± 0.1), cardiac glycosides (7.17 ± 0.27), terpenes (5.71 ± 0.10) and tannins (3.93 ± 0.17) while alkaloids and anthraquinones were not detected. The proximate composition recorded for Baphia nitida were crude protein (10.33 ± 0.51), crude lipid (4.34 ± 0.13), crude fibre (10.86 ± 0.6), ash content (4.86 ± 0.26), moisture content (7.97 ± 0.16), CHO (49.06 ± 3.04) in Mg/100g and caloric value (314.87 ± 7.59 Kcal). From the results obtained, the leaves of Baphia nitida are rich in medicinal and nutritive value and is recommended for pharmaceutical and food industries. Therefore, it is recommended to be used as commercial and food value.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Phytochemicals can be defined, in the strictest sense, as chemicals produced by plants. However, the term is generally used to describe chemicals from plants that may affect health, but are not essential nutrients. While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals is limited. Because plant-based foods are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds, information on the potential health effects of individual phytochemicals is linked to information on the health effects of foods that contain those phytochemicals (Sak, 2012).
Nutrients are molecules in food that all organisms need to make energy, grow, develop, and reproduce. Nutrients are digested and then broken down into basic parts to be used by the organism. There are two main types of nutrients, macronutrients and micronutrients. The three main categories of macronutrients include carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The two types of micronutrients are vitamins and minerals, and these are extra molecules that cells need to make energy (Tsao, 2010).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the society today, people are suffering from health problems such as diabetes, gonorrhoea, jaundice, epilepsy and cardiac pain. The outcome of plant and animal diseases is climbing every day. With the help of the plant leaf which contain active chemical compound and sources of carbohydrate, protein, mineral and amino acid which have good nutritive and medicinal values.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include to:
investigate phytochemical from the leaves of Baphia nitida.
estimate the nutrient and antinutrient found in the leaves of Baphia nitida.
make appropriate recommendations base from this research to the pharmaceutical industries and the general public.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The research approach is considered effective in discovering bioactive profile of Baphia nitida therapeutic significance. Some of the bioactive substances that can be derived from plants are flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids, tannin, antioxidants and phenolic compounds are not properly documented.

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND NUTRIENT EVALUATION OF BAPHIA NITIDA LEAVES.

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