1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organizations operate or function with the aim of achieving some goals and objectives which could be in value or satisfaction. In order to operate successfully, intentions must be specifically identified to direct operations. Furthermore, for any organization to benefit fully from its environment, it must possess the capacity and ability to explore such environment. Essentially, the capacity and ability to accomplish predetermined goals is directly related to the resources of the organization.
There are four types of resources that can be used for the attainment of organizational goals. These are finances, physical, or materials, technology, and human (personnel). Of all these, the human resources which include specialized personnel, unskilled labour, and personnel management are directly responsible for the harnessing of all other forms of resources in the bid to achieve the goals of the organization. If the objectives of the organization cannot be met the organization cannot continue or may stagnate. A lot of things will therefore happen, including the fact that people will not be able to earn their living, the flow of funds will be inhibited, there will be no expansions, there will be retrenchment, and unemployment. In order to avoid disastrous consequences, the importance of human resources must be highly recognized by any organization. They must be known and accepted primarily as those contributing to the success of the organization. According to Brech (1983), for the achievement of a given task or for the effective operations of persons associated with the organization there should be willing cooperation from, and co-ordinates activity among the persons involved in the work.
The effectiveness of operations and maintenance of cooperation among members of the organization are in part determined by the personal and social contentment derived by them from their participation in the task of the organization. It is from this perspective that it is found imperative for people to be attracted or motivated to enter an organization and remain in it. Once on the job, they have to be induced or motivated to exert energy and effort at an acceptable rate. Motivation and job satisfaction is the drive and the means towards the attainment of goal congruency within the organization.
Generally, one can say that an individual’s motivation and job satisfaction has to do with (a) the direction of his behaviour or what he or she chooses to do when presented with a number of possible alternatives; (b) the amplitude or the strength of the response (i.e. effort) once the choice is made; and (c) the persistence of the behaviour. The term “motivation and job satisfaction” conveniently subsumes a number of other variable such as drive, need, incentive, reward, expectancy and so on Obi-Keguna (2004:535). Organizations are often faced with the problem of meeting or achieving together the official objectives gain priority, the personal objectives and the employee’s objectives. Though the official objective and the employee’s objectives must not be thrown aside because when the employee is satisfied the organization becomes satisfied. If the satisfaction receive by the employee is not sufficient he may no longer accept responsibilities imposed on him by the organization. His dwindling performance will affect another employee by way of imitation or jealousy. It may therefore form a chain. Such performances are counter-productive. The survival of the organization in such a situation cannot be guaranteed. The refusal of even a few participants to continue in a co-operative relationship is frequently a serious matter and is detrimental to the organization growth. (Albert 1994:195)
Willing co-operation among members of an organization is promoted by keeping them informed of matters concerning the activities of the organization. They require consultation regarding its regulation and further development. A sense of self responsibility for the performance of their work and should be fostered in them and there should be opportunities for self development which should be compatible with the purpose and interest of the organizations. The employees should be encouraged to contribute to its effectiveness and development apart from the performance of their set tasks. There should be a creation of work environment where the employees work willingly and have a sense of belonging as they fell they are working to further the objectives of the organization they are also deriving their own objectives. Therefore, managers must incorporate into the whole system factors that will induce the employees to contribute effectively and efficiently.
Motivation and job satisfaction create incentives for the employees to work harder, conscientiously, and much more effectively towards the achievement of the organization’s objectives. Pigors et al (1981:342) opines that as the employees have certain wants that should be supplied by the organization, so the organization has certain types of behaviourthat it expects from its employees. This behaviour can be derived through motivation and job satisfaction, which essentially is a skill aligning the organizations and employees’ interests so that their behaviour bring about good performance. This then promises high productivity resulting in the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.
According to Light (1871:99) “the prosperity of a business or industrial undertaking depends upon the efforts of human beings employed in it”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Looking at activities and behaviour of workers in government parastatals and private establishments very many things happen daily. At times, some workers are seen in groups discussing outside the offices. In some cases, some traders carry their wares into offices or stay behind the offices to sell. It is also observed that some of these traders are workers themselves, either selling their goods in an alien place or within the office or place of work. This attitude which is detrimental to the progress of the organization and good job performance, are often times attributed to poor management policies and implementation strategies as well as inadequate motivation and low level of job satisfaction to induce high job performance. The focus of any organization is how to satisfy it workers in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. All organizations including Champion Breweries Plc. Uyo, have their origin, objectives and goals which can only be achieved through the effort of the workers. The workers individually have their own goals and these may be different from those of the organization. A major task of the employer is getting the employees to works in such a way that both the organizational and individual goals are achieved. For any organization to survive in today’s competitive climate, it must of necessity motivate and satisfy its workers to meet the challenges. Several articles, journals, books and dissertations have been published on motivation and job satisfaction but most of these seem to have ignored the importance of psychological and sociological factors particularly the needs of the worker in his job performance. Some organizations display a marked reluctance to look into the welfare of their employees, thus failing to develop a systematic approach to manpower planning and utilization. Also studies of job satisfaction and motivation have not demonstrated that ‘pay’ or money per se has been a major cause of worker dissatisfaction. What they have shown is that intrinsic aspects of work (i.e. achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself, advancement and personal growth) have been neglected and are often the cause of low performance and low productivity among workers. The management of Champion Breweries Plc, like other Organizations has today witnessed a change in the pattern of demands from its employees such as safety measures, promotional opportunities, high wages and salaries, staff training and development, job security and participation in decision making. This study is designed to investigate how staff participation in decision making, relates to or affects their performance in the Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To guide the researcher in the study, it is necessary to ask the following questions:
To what extent does poor management policy on staff promotion, training and development, recognition lead to employees behaving incognito in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo?
Can non participation in decision making by the employees have adverse effect on active work performance in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo?
Does poor remuneration, late payment of salaries, inadequate fringe benefits of financial nature, give employees preference for petty trading, insubordination, laxity and impropriety to be their stock-in-trade than effective work performance?
To what extent do such ill actions/behaviours by workers contribute to the achievement of the organizational and personal goals?
Can lack of job security and threat, organizational culture hinder employees work performance?
Can poor working relationship between bosses and subordinates, and among peer groups bring about increase in productivity in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo?
What conditions have the employees found themselves which have prompted them to look down on the tasks assigned to them?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to systematically investigate and examine motivation and job satisfaction on workers performance in industrial organization with particular reference to Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo. The specific objectives of the study include:
To investigate the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction on staff of Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo.
To examine the strength of motivational factors such as salary, promotion, job security participation in decision making, staff training and development on workers performance.
To investigate whether there is poor performance on workers in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo and if any, to find out if such could be attributed to inadequate motivation and low job satisfaction.
To identify those factors that would motivate and satisfy workers to perform well on their jobs.
To recommend ways of improving worker’s performance in Champion Breweries Plc, Uyo, in particular and other organizations in general.
MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION IN INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BREWERIES PLC, UYO