Project Materials

GENERAL

MICROBIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT AVOCADO FRUIT

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CHAPTER ONE

1.      INTRODUCTION1.1   BACKGROUND  OF STUDY

The Avocado pear,   Americana is a tropical and sub tropical  fruit tree, originated in central America or adjoining regions of or South America.  It has now spread to much of the near tropical world.  The avocado is limited especially by its climatic requirements, with their race differences.  It is also highly susceptible to drought injury.  But excess soil moisture is equally fatal, encouraging the dread phytophthora root rot in most of the world, and where  the fungus is unknown. Despite the high water activity of  most fruits, the how PH leads to their spoilage being dominated by fungi, both yeast and moulds.  Other common diseases of pears include the black spot or scab caused by as comycetes

          Avocado fruits has being estimated that one fourth of all produced harvested is no consumed before spoilage (Salulche, 1974), spoilage of fresh fruits usually occurs during storage and transport and while wacting to be processed unlike many other foods fruits after picking and before processing are ‘a live’ of the plus the normal ripering process complicate an independent discussion of the microbiological spoilage problems are really market diseases of these :

          Shape, varies from slightly obligate to highly elongate, an intermediate oval or pear shape is preferred.  Yellow to purple or black.

          The composition of the fruit influences the likely type of spoilage.  thus bacteria soft rot is widespread for the most part among the fruits is limited to those that are not highly acid.  Because most fruits are somewhat acid are fairly dry at the surface, and are deficient in B vitamins, mold are the most common causes of spoilage.  The compositions too, must determine the particular kind of molds most likely to grow, thus avocado support a large, variety of fungal spoilage organisms and other kinds comparatively few.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Micro-organisms are known to destroy fruits, thereby reducing the quantity for consumption and the profits desirable from fruits such as avocado.  Many spot are noticed on pears which do change the taste when consumed.

          Bacteria and fungi are harmful and useful living organisms.  The spoilage of most fruits is always associated with  bactera and fungi, many diseses of plants are associated with bacteria and fungi (Micro-organisms)

          The adverse effect of bacteria in plants and fruits has resulted in shortage of avocado fruits for consumption. Revenue is lost by farmers and industries that uses avocado fruits as a raw for fruit juice due to the spoilage caused by micro-organisms.

1.3     M AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

examination of spoilt avocado fruits

To isolate and identify how micro-organism destroy avocado so as to guide producer  and farmers on how to manage the fruits

To isolate and identify it those micro-organisms are responsible for the spoilage

To compare the extent of spoilage in the area of colelction (tree) with that of market

1.4     HYPOTHESIS

HO:   organisms do not cause spoilage of avocado at either in the field or during exposure for sale.

Hg     = Microorganisms (Fungi and Bacteria) are responsible for avocado spoilage.

1.      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

2.      This y will be useful to farmers, fruit juice industries and consumers of avocado fruits. T he outcome of this research will guide users of avocado fruit on the best method of preserving to avoid spoilage, the research work also will add to the literature and information existing about avocado for ent and companies that uses avocado as raw for the production of fruit juice

1.6     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

There are many or different type of microorganism that causes spoilage in avocado fruit or fruits in general, focus is made only on fungi and bacterial because they are the major organisms associated with spoilage in avocado fruits.

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