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LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND CHANGE IN EDEM A QUANTITATIVE

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LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND IN EDEM (A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH)

 

A THESIS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE —          ————————iCERTIFICATION        ————————iiDEDICATION             ————————iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS———————ivTABLE OF CONTENTS———————vABSTRACT —            —   CHAPTER ONE———————viiINTRODUCTION        ————————11.0       Preamble          ————————1

1.1       Background to the Study         —        —        —        —        —        —        2

1.2       of the Problem         —        —        —        —        —        —        3

1.3       Scope of the Study      —        —        —        —        —        —        —        4

1.4       Purpose of the Study —           —        —        —        —        —        —        4

1.5       Research Questions     —        —        —        —        —        —        —        5

1.6       Research Hypothesis —           —        —        —        —        —        —        5

1.7       Significance of the Study         —        —        —        —        —        —        5

1.8 Limitation of the Study — — — — — — 6 1.9 Historical and Geographical Location of Edem — — — 6

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE          —        —        —        —        —        —        —        7

2.1       Definition of Terms     —        —        —        —        —        —        —        7

2.1.1    The Concept of Language        —        —        —        —        —        —        7

2.1.2 Dialect — — — — — — — — — 10

2.1.3 Speech Community — — — — — — — 12

2.1.4 Linguistic Variable — — — — — — — 14

2.1.5 Language Variation — — — — — — — 15

2.1.6    Social Variable            —        —        —        —        —        —        —        20 2.2 Theoretical Study         —             —        —        —        —        —        —        22 2.3 Quantitative —        —        —        —        —             —        22

2.4 Dynamic — — — — — — — 25

2.5 Acts of Identity Model — — — — — — 26

2.6 Empirical Studies — — — — — — — 27 2.7 Summary of Literature Review — — — — — 33

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 — — — — — — — 34

3.2 Methodological Problems — — — — — — 36

3.3 Selection of Speakers, Circumstances and Linguistic Variables — 36

3.4 Collection of Texts — — — — — — — 36

3.5 of Linguistic Variables and Variants — — — 38 3.6 Processing the Figures — — — — — — 39

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION — 41

4.2 Calculating Scores of the Variables for the Texts — — — 41

4.3 Calculating Scores for Individual Texts — — — — 42

4.4 Tables — — — — — — — — — 52 4.5 Inference — — — — — — — — 63

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS — — — — 64

5.2 Review of the Procedure — — — — — — 64

5.2.1 Major Steps in Hypothesis Testing — — — — — 64

5.3 Test of Hypothesis — — — — — — — 65

5.4 Findings — — — — — — — — 69 5.5 Summary of Findings and Conclusion — — — — 70

REFERES — — — — — — — — 72

APPENDIX — — — — — — — — — 87

Abstract

This work examines the concept of language variation in Edem speech community of Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. This was achieved through systematic observation and analysis of the speakers’ use of language in natural situations. Hypotheses were raised to test the linguistic variables of (d), (t), (n) and (gbo) and the social factors of age, region, and education influencing them.

Speakers were sub categorized into two distinct regions of Edem Enu and Edem Ani and were tape-recorded during unstructured interviews. The collected data were quantitatively studied and the results showed that variable (n) with its variants (n) and (l) has the highest variable output and lowest variable (gbo) is used in the speech community.

Again, it showed that the educated speakers scored highest in the use of variant [n] of variable (n) while the uneducated had the highest frequent output in variant [n] of variable (n). The younger and the old speakers scored highest in the use of variant [n] of variable (n).

The results were interpreted by subjecting them to statistical analysis of hypothesis testing. The results further showed that the social variable of region is likely to be the major variability in Edem dialect of Igbo speech community.

The results proved that age and education as social variables do not influence variability significantly. Based on the result of the analysis and statistical test, it is pertinent to conclude that the linguistic variables of (d) and (t) can be said to have direct link with the social variable of region. Since region is discovered to influence language variation and potential change within the Edem speech pattern, we recommend further linguistic investigation at the morphological and phonological levels to determine their variability and possible change in Edem language.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Preamble

Variety, they say, is the spice of life. This holds true of every aspect of human life and language is no exception. Again, the only thing that is constant is change. Change is a common experience in man’s activities. Language as a process of communication inherently changes from place to place, time to time and person to person.

In this work, attention will be focused on the concept of linguistic variation and change in Edem speech community with special attention to quantitative approach. is the scientific study of language which comprises very many fields of investigation.

This research is based on socio linguistics, which is the study of the relationship between language use and the structure of the society. It also takes into account such factors as the social background of both the speaker and the respondent, that is their age, social class and region that have been observed to influence the choice of variants of the variables as would be seen later in this study

Everyone knows that language is variable. In other words, every language exhibits considerable internal variations and speakers, who are aware of their social significance make use of the many possibilities offered to them. Variability is everywhere in language from the unique details in each production of a sound or sign to the auditory or visual processing of the linguistic signal, (Agbedo, 2008:1).

In fact, one of the amazing facts about human communication is the demonstrated ability to normalize the inherent variation within every spoken or signal message in processing the linguistic signal.

 

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LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND CHANGE IN EDEM (A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH)

 

 

LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND IN EDEM (A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH)

 

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