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HEALTH EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS

KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

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KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH PRECAUTIONS AMONG HEALTH FACILITIES IN RIA A CASE OF ORUK ANAM , AKWA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE

 

Worldwide, infection is one of the most pressing issues in health care services. Mortality and morbidity from clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can be attributed to it. As they carry out their clinical duties at a hospital, health care employees are at danger of needle stick injuries and blood-borne viruses. Sharp injuries and contact with blood and other bodily fluids expose them to germs that cause blood-borne illnesses, such as HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses.

There were an estimated 16 000 hepatitis C virus, 66 000 hepatitis B virus, and 1000 HIV infections in health care workers worldwide due to sharp injuries in 2002, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). An increased risk of needle stick injury arises from the improper disposal of sharps.

Development countries have a higher prevalence of these causal variables because of the higher rate of injecting with previously used needles there. There is a correlation between the number of needle stick injuries in developing nations and the number of HIV-infected people there.

In a Nigerian teaching hospital, needle stick injuries were likewise recognized as the most common occupational health hazard. One strategy for reducing the risk of infection to health care personnel and patients is to use universal precautions as a preventive intervention. Blood and bodily fluid precautions were first suggested by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1983 when a patient was known or believed to be infected with blood-borne diseases.

The CDC recommended in 1987 that precautions be continuously employed regardless of the patient’s illness state. The term “universal blood and bodily fluid precautions” or simply “precautions” refers to the practice of extending standard precautions to all patients.

All known blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, are protected from transmission to and from health care workers when first aid or other health care services are provided using these precautions. These include bodily fluids with visible blood, including vaginal secretions and semen, as well as blood. In 1996, the CDC introduced a new prevention strategy known as “safety precautions,” which incorporated the universal precautions.

The term “universal precautions” has been replaced by the term “safety precautions,” which are designed to be applied to all patients in hospitals, regardless of their diagnosis or suspected infection status. Taking “safety precautions” when working with contaminated or suspected-of-being-contaminated equipment and devices, and when in contact with potentially infectious bodily fluids, secretions, or excretions (except sweat), is critical, regardless of whether or not there is any visible blood or skin with solution of continuity or mucous tiss.

As an infection transmission source, a patient’s accommodation must be in accordance with the quality of their care. Hand washing, the use of barriers such as gloves and gowns, as well as the disposal of sharp objects such as needles, are only some of the safety precautions that must be taken. Additionally, proper professional immunization is essential since it ensures predicted protection against diseases that can be prevented by vaccination.

The level of universal precautions practiced by health care employees may vary from one type of health care worker to the next. Health care personnel may differ in their understanding of universal precaution because of their training. The average percentage of health care employees who were exposed to blood or other bodily fluids was 9.3 percent, according to several studies.

A comparable study in Ibadan indicated that 25.1 percent of the population had been exposed. Healthcare personnel were not adhering to universal precautions because of a variety of issues, including personal and organizational ones. Health care providers, particularly in underdeveloped nations, have not received adequate training in universal precautions.

All patients, regardless of disease condition, should be protected from infection during treatment, according to the most recent guidelines issued by the Healthcare Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee (HICPAC) in . Hand hygiene, the usage of personal safety equipment, and instrument processing are a few examples of SPs.

protection, avoiding needle recapping, glove use when necessary, hand washing before and after patient contact, the use of face masks, and avoiding the use of a used needle that has been disassembled from a syringe were among the safety precautions reported to be inadequate by healthcare professionals in many studies.

Health care workers’ failure to adhere to safety precautions has been linked to numerous issues, including: lack of understanding and knowledge about safety precautions, insufficient time to put them into practice (overwhelm), inadequate resources, inadequate training, uncomfortable equipment, skin irritation, forgetfulness, and distance from necessary facilities with insufficient management support.

In addition, various socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, and marital status, as well as the location of one’s position inside the hospital, have been linked to a person’s adherence to safety practices.

Pre-service training, in-service training, and the availability of personal protective equipment have all been tried in different nations to boost healthcare professionals’ compliance with safety precautions. So we set out to find out how well health facilities in Oruk Anam , Akwa Ibom State, understood and adhered to safety procedures.

1.3 PURPOSE AND GOALS OF THE EXPERIMENT

Health facilities in Nigeria are to be assessed for their knowledge and compliance with safety precautions. The following are some of the study’s other general objectives:

To find out how well health facilities in Nigeria understand and implement safety procedures.

To find out how health care professionals feel about safety procedures in their workplaces and facilities.

Nigerian health care facilities’ level of compliance with safety precautions.

To study the effect of health care workers’ knowledge and compliance on safety precautions in Nigerian health institutions.

To investigate the association between compliance and compliance with safety procedures among Nigerian health facility staff.

To de the actions done by health care employees when they are exposed to occupational dangers and injuries in health facilities.

To identify some of the elements that influence health care professionals’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of safety precautions.

1.6. THE ’S IMPORTANCE

Overall, data shows that needle stick injuries and blood-borne viruses pose a significant risk to patients, health care personnel, and the local population. As a result of a misunderstanding of the definitions and recommendations of safety precautions, as well as a lack of adherence to them, nosocomial and blood-borne illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, HBV, and HCV are on the rise in terms of mortality and morbidity.

Risk of exposure to blood and bodily fluids can be reduced by following safety procedures. Occupational and nosocomial infection control relies on monitoring the adherence of healthcare workers to safety procedures since doing so allows for the assessment of the risks of occupational infection exposure.

As a baseline for intervention, this study will examine the awareness, attitude, and practice of safety precautions among health care employees in Nigerian health care facilities. An intervention would also be recommended if necessary.

To keep track of changes in the frequency and severity of needle stick injuries as well as the associated morbidity and mortality rates among Nigerian health care professionals, this study could be put to good use.

Additionally, this study will help identify any gaps in conventional precaution practices among these HCWs, and the findings will be used in the creation of a health education program. In addition, it will serve as a resource for the academic community for further investigation.

AIM AND DESCRTION OF THE EXPERIMENT

A case study of Oruk Anam in Akwa Ibom state serves as the focus of the research.

Limitation of the Research

Insufficient funds can hinder a researcher’s ability to get important materials, literature, or information, as well as in the collecting of data (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Due to the researcher’s busy schedule, this study will have to wait while he or she works on other projects. This, in turn, will reduce the amount of time spent on research.

 

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KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AMONG HEALTH FACILITIES IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF ORUK ANAM LGA, AKWA IBOM STATE

 

 

KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH PRECAUTIONS AMONG HEALTH FACILITIES IN RIA A CASE OF ORUK ANAM , AKWA STATE

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