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Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorus Level on the Grain Yield and Yield Components of Soybean

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Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorus Level on the Grain Yield and Yield Components of Soybean

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT           1

CHAPTER ONE   3

INTRODUCTION 3

1.1          BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY     3

1.2          STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM   6

1.3          OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY           7

1.4          RESEARCH QUESTIONS  7

1.5          RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 8

1.6          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY      8

1.7          SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY           9

1.8          PLAN OF THE STUDY       9

CHAPTER TWO  11

LITERATURE REVIEW       11

2.1          INTRODUCTION 11

2.2 CONCEPTUAL REVIEW            11

2.3          THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK        18

2.4 EMPIRICAL REVIEW  21

CHAPTER THREE                24

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         24

RESEARCH DESIGN          24

POPULATION OF THE STUDY        24

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE      24

DATA COLLECTION           25

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT (QUESTIONNAIRE)         25

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT   25

ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE  26

STATISTICAL TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS  26

CHAPTER FOUR:               28

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION              28

4.1 INTRODUCTION        28

4.2 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS               28

TABLE BASED ON RESEARCH QUESTION 32

4.3 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS               40

CHAPTER FIVE   43

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS      43

5.1          INTRODUCTION 43

5.2          SUMMARY          43

5.3          CONCLUSION    44

5.4          RECOMMENDATIONS    46

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a member of the Fabaceae family, rich in nutrients. Soybean is not only seen as an oil plant but also used for various purposes. Among grain legumes, soybean is an economically important crop that is grown in diverse environments throughout the world. It’s adaptation to tropical and subtropical regions is still involving extensive breeding work. To use land continuously for crop cultivation, incorporating organic and inorganic fertilizers to soil would provide multiple benefits for improving the chemical and physical status of the soil which results in improved crop yield (Ferguson et al.,2006).

Both organic and inorganic fertilizers are sources of mineral elements, which plants require for effective growth and development (Ferguson et al.,2006). Essential mineral elements are required in optimum amounts and are classified into micro and macro nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium have great effects in plant growth and development. Their deficiencies or excesses result in marked effects on the growth and yield of crops. Nitrogen is a chlorophyll component, and it promotes vegetative growth and green colouration of foliage. Phosphorus plays a major role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage, cell division, and maturation.According to Fageria et al., (1995) large quantity of P fertilizer may be required for successful soybean production. Potassium is important in plant metabolism, protein synthesis, and chlorophyll development. The most important crop nutrients in agricultural systems are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) (Chiezey 2001). Most compound fertilizers will contain three elements essential for plant growth: NPK which stands for nitrogen (promotes leaf growth), phosphorus (root, flower, and fruit), and potassium (stem and root growth and protein analysis). Soybean nitrogen (N) requirements are met in a complex manner, as this crop is capable of utilizing both soil N (mostly in the form of nitrate) and atmospheric N (through symbiotic nitrogen fixation) (Kakar et al., 2002).

The use of fertilizer is considered to be one of the most important factors to increase crop yield. Legumes require P for adequate growth and N fixation and their effectiveness in soil improvement can be hindered by P deficiency (Giller and Cadisch, 1995). Phosphorous has been shown to be an essential element, and its application has been shown to be important for growth, development, and yield of soybean (Kakar et al., 2002). Phosphorus deficiency is probably one of the greatest constraints for agriculture. Fageria et al., (1995) had earlier reported that large quantity of P fertilizer may be required for successful soybean production.

1.1 Objective

The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of phosphorus level on the grain yield and yield components of soybean.


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