1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Issues bordering on national security are terribly vital for the material progress of any polity. Hutchful (2012) opines that crucial to the survival of any society is its law and order that which are predicated on national security. Insecurity leaves in its wake tales of woe that which the country and its citizens have had to contend with over the years. Every society across the globe has its peculiar problems and challenges of which Nigeria is not an exception. As a developing country, she faces her own share of social, political, economic and cultural issues which has in no small measure affected the well-being of the people (Adebayo, 2013a). Addressing problems of insecurity is vital in order to execute successful development projects. As a goal, it is believed that each country ought to be after how to achieve a degree of security by protecting its citizens from structural violence, crime, and social insecurity. Insecurity could be a phenomenon that is bedevilling other countries across the globe in varying degrees as it affects policies and development. Any nation striving towards development should try to limit the frequency of crime to the barest minimum. Recently in Nigeria, there has been an upsurge in the amount of crime committed. The search for security is no doubt, a known primary concern of every community from time immemorial. Indeed, “the seek for security might have been one among many drives for individual to aggregate into bands, tribes, kingdoms and nation-states to join international organizations” (PadelFord, 2011). Throughout the early stages of man’s existence, the search for security was given expression in form of fruit gathering and periodic hunting expedition for the purposes of meeting the basic socio-economic needs of the people. Also, people’s preference for a rocky and mountainous topography as shelter was for the most part informed by physical security consideration. However, Nigerian modern society has witnessed far reaching transformation which has created complicated security problem for it. Nigeria’s return to democracy in 1999 after decades of dictatorship has been threatened by the unprecedented campaign of terror by a terrorist group called Boko Haram whose activities are threatening to engulf a huge swathe of the country. As lawlessness holds sway, the entire North is turning into a huge killing field. The magnitude of insecurity in Nigeria has become so grave that the Army, Police Force, Air Force, Directorate of State Security etc have all been drafted into maintaining internal security. This has led to palpable fear among the populace as security of lives and properties can no longer be guaranteed. The phenomenon of crime has impacted negatively on the economic, social and political life of the nation over time (Adebayo, 2013b). The emergence of Boko Haram insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. According to Murtada (2013), the real name of Boko Haram was Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lid da’awati Wal-Jihad, (congregation of the People of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad). The word Boko Haram means western education is forbidden. The group emerged in early 2000s as small Sunni Islamic group advocating a strict interpretation and implementation of Islamic law in Nigeria. Initially, the sect’s leadership did not call for violence; its followers engaged in periodic clashes with security during its formative years (Blanchard, 2014). There is a growing suspicion among Nigerians concerning the real identity and motive of Boko Haram sect. Most Muslims see it as an extension of Maitatsine sect that was established in 1945 to transport turmoil to Islam because it was confirmed that Maitatsine wasn’t a Muslim until his death, while a reasonable number of Christians see it as a shot to Islamize Nigerians while some are indifferent (Shehu, 2014). In 2009, the activities of Boko Haram had been re-modeled from a local peace militia into a violent group, after the government attacked the members of the cluster in some major cities of Northern Nigeria, that led to five days violent clashes between the members of Boko harm and the Nigerian security forces and resulted in killing the Boko haram sect leader, Muhammad Yusuf in Maiduguri and many other people (Blanchard, 2014). When the sect arose in 2009, their activities were slow. The violence re-emergence of the group in 2010 came up with a new ways and tactics that include suicide bombing, kidnapping, and assaulting Muslim clerics, Mosques and churches in the country. The first suicide bombings Nigerians witnessed was in police headquarters and United Nation’s office in Abuja (Blanchard, 2014). The activities of the sect escalated on 14th April, 2014 when the sect abducted 250 female students from Government Girl’s Secondary school Chibok in Borno State (Zenn, 2014). Also, Boko Haram and Ansaru were selected as foreign terrorist organization (FTO) by the United State security Department in November 2013. Ansaru was the Boko Haram faction that earlier in 2013 abducted and detained seven foreigners who were operating with international construction companies. Subsequently, the UN Committee on Al Qaeda sanction blacklisted the group on 22nd of May, 2014 as one of the world terrorist organisations. The United Nation listing entry describes Boko Haram sect as an associate of Al-Qaeda and additionally one of the organisations of Al-Qaeda in the Muslim Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) (Reuters, 2014). Therefore, this study aims to look at the implication of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigerian National Security system.
Boko Haram is a terrorist organization which caused the loss of lives and properties in northern Nigeria, while others considered it as insurgent group financed by foreign nationals to spoil the image of Islam and Muslims. There are causes and factors that impacted negatively on Nigerian national development and security which include human, economic, political and social affairs. Since 2009 when Boko Haram initially started its insurgency and the aftermath of the killing of Mohammed Yusuf the leader of the sect, the activities of the sect have continued unabated despite the effort of the government to curtail the heinous crime of the sect, over 10,000 people have been killed by Boko Haram. Most of the operations of the sect are concentrated in the North-East of Nigeria. The Boko-haram sect has use kidnapping and raping of women as a weapon of war. The poor are the most victims of the sect atrocities and the implications of the sect insurgency fall on the ordinary Nigerians. The purpose of this study to examine the implications of the Boko-haram sect in the national security of Nigeria where the sect operations are predominant.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate insurgency and its implication on National security in Nigeria. Other specific objectives are as follows;
- To examine the threats of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigerian security system.
- To examine the origin of Boko Haram and factors responsible for insurgency in Nigeria.
- To examine the implications of Boko Haram insurgency on national security in Nigeria.
- To examine the impact of politics on the fight against insurgency.
- To examine the relationship between insurgency and national security in Nigeria.
- To examine policy measures that can be taken to alleviate and combat the negative effect of the Boko Haram insurgency on national security.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the threats of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigerian security system?
- What is the origin of Boko Haram and factors responsible for insurgency in Nigeria?
- What are the implications of Boko Haram insurgency on national security in Nigeria?
- What is the impact of politics on the fight against insurgency?
- What is the relationship between Boko-haram insurgency and national security in Nigeria?
- What are the policy measures that can be taken to alleviate and combat the negative effect of the Boko Haram insurgency on national security?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no implication of Boko Haram insurgency on national security in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant implication of Boko Haram insurgency on national security in Nigeria
H0: There is no significant relationship between Boko-haram insurgency and national security in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between Boko-haram insurgency and national security in Nigeria
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be vital to the government, security apparatus and the general public. The findings from this study will educate the government and the general public on the extent of damage done by the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and its effect on the national security with a view of resolving the crisis. It will also contribute to knowledge of the implications of Boko Haram insurgency. Furthermore, the study will generate theory regarding the implications of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the insurgency: its implication on National security, case study of Boko Haram.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: A possible future effect or result, something that is suggested without being said directly. The fact, state of being involved in or connected to something.
Insurgency: This refers to the systematic use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify, or challenge political control of a region. By its peculiar nature, insurgency is a pattern of asymmetric violence. In effect, it involves the use of a combination of subversion, sabotage, guerrilla tactics, and sundry extremist machinations in a bid to attain a politically amenable objective (cf. Otegwu 2015; Albert 2017).
Boko Haram insurgency: The term ‘Boko Haram’ literarily translates to ‘Western education is forbidden’. It refers to the notorious terrorist group based in northeastern Nigeria, whose official name is Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’awatiwal Jihad (meaning: people committed to the propagation of the Prophet’s teachings and Jihad). The Jihadist group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri, Borno State, by a radical Islamist cleric, Mohammed Yusuf. The group’s ideology is based on extremist jihadism, with strict observance of Islamic law (Sharia) in Nigeria (Okoli and Iortyer 2014). In the early 2000s, the insurgents were active in the greater part of northern Nigeria, almost overrunning states like Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa. The intensification of counter-insurgency operations of the Nigerian forces and allied civilian Joint Task Forces in the 2014/2015 period forced the insurgents to withdraw from its city cells and circuits into the Sambisa forest. Since then, the forest has become the safe haven and sanctuary for the insurgents.
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