Background of the Study
An educational institution, whether formal or non-formal, performs a significant function of providing learning experiences that lead students or pupils from the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. Various educational subjects abound in secondary school of which Geography is one of them. According to Adedokun and Jamu (2011), Geography is an old discipline from the basis of human knowledge about his environment, the world and his relationship with the element of environment. In view of this, Geography is a subject that focuses on disciplinary change and paradigm shift which makes the use of instructional materials in Geography stems from the belief that it is an abstract subject that needs to be centralized for students to appreciate as a school subject.
Geography as one of the core subjects in Senior Secondary Schools may be better facilitated when suitable and relevant Instructional Materials are employed during its teaching and learning. This is necessary in view of the perception of the national policy on education (2013) which grouped Geography as a core subject at their Senior Secondary Level. In order to enhance and facilitate the learning of Geography at the senior secondary level, the instructional materials must take into consideration the need for strategies that will assist the learners to appreciate the subject thus, the need for a study that will document the efficiency of instructional materials at the SS level in facilitating the teaching of Geography. It is within this context that Guga (2011) observed that the school system in Nigeria is patterned along the core curriculum with the hope that learners will be exposed to relevant knowledge, skill and attitude necessary for survival in a larger community. To attain the noble objective of teaching, the teacher need to put in place ways and manners with which the learner will benefit from instructional material for illustration.
Since Geography is a core subject at senior secondary level, the need to adopt a more pragmatic approach in its teaching is highly needed. Theories and principles of teaching process, teachers need to go an extra mile so as to make teaching-learning process more interesting. Psychologists and educators have also agreed on the need of extra means to enhance teaching. In fact, the objective prescribed for the teaching of Geography at senior secondary level made it compulsory for the use of instructional materials. For example, the syllabuses for Geography at the senior secondary schools prescribe some objectives to be attained at the end of instruction. These include need for selective teaching, the appreciation of Geography as a dynamic subject, and the facilitation of international solidarity (kozah, 2012)
Consequently, for the teaching of Geography to be effective and efficient, it is mandatory for teachers to make use of varieties of instructional materials. It was within this context that Adeyemo (2009) in his study observed that there was no adequate instructional material in teaching and learning process in kwara state. Also, the findings of Fakomogber (2013) shows that in post primary school in Bida, 70% of respondents said Geography teacher did not have instructional materials to utilize in teaching and learning of Geography. Thus, mass failure as reported in some research works could be minimized if teachers utilize various instructional materials and also try to improvise when such materials are not available.
The present researcher believes that if teachers are adequately trained and groomed to handle various instructional materials the objective of Geography outlined by West Africa examinations council (WAEC) and natural examination council (NECO) could be attained. On the other hand, if adequate attention is not given to the effects of various instructional materials on students’ Academic performance in Geography, most abstract concepts will not be highly appreciated by the students there by leading to memorization and relegation of facts, which will not promote effectiveness and efficiency of the learners. Thus the objective of effective knowledge, skills and attitude among students will not be attained. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the effects of the use of various instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students in Geography in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 Statement of the problem
In spite of the desire for Geography education by so many secondary school students coupled with the fact that Geography is one of the core subject as stated in the national policy on education (2013), the subject is still facing some problems like non-availability of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning, ineffective use of the few available resources, and lack of adequately trained teachers to teach the subject. Furthermore, some of the teachers specialized in other related subjects like political science, history and social studies but are found teaching of Geography. Consequently, the teaching of Geography is subjected to the methods of their individual subject areas as well as not seeking for adequate instructional materials to support the teaching process (Objoha, 2011). Literature indicate that there are inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning social science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria and Geography is one of the social science subjects. From the literature, the researcher observes that there is need to further investigate the availability of materials for teaching Geography and thereby establish the effect of these instructional materials on students’ academic performance therefore, this study sought to establish, if any, there is effects of instructional materials on the academic performances of senior secondary school’s students in Geography in Abak Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in Geography in the secondary school in Abak Local Government area. Specifically, the study sought:
To examine the use of flip chart in the teaching and learning Geography and how it affects students’ Academic performance in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
To examine the use of textbook in teaching Geography and how it affects students’ Academic performance in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
To examine the frequent use of the globes teaching Geography and how it affects students’ Academic performance in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
To examine how use of information communication technology(ICT) in teaching of Geography how it affects academic performance studentsin secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOGRAPHY