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GODFATHERISM AND POLITICAL CONFLICT IN AKWA IBOM STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Content – – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.4 Research Question – – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – 7
1.9 Organization of the Study – – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1  The Concept of Godfatherism – – – – – – 9
2.1.1 Political Conflict – – – – – – – – 11
2.1.2 The Emergence of Godfatherism in Nigeria – – – – – 12
2.1.3 Godfatherism and Patterns of Manifestation – – – – – 14
2.1.4 Causes/Factors that Sustain Godfatherism in Urue-Offong/Oruko – – 16
2.1.5 Godfatherism and the Development Process in Akwa Ibom State – – 19
2.2 Case Study – – – – – – – – – 22
2.2.1 Briefs on Urue Offong/Oruko Local Government Area – – – 22
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 26
2.3.1 The Elite Theory – – – – – – – – 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 28
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 28
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques – – – – – – 29
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection – – – – – – 30
3.5 Validation of Instrument – – – – – – – 30
3.6 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – 30
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 33
4.1 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 36
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 43

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 44
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 45
References
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
According to John (2006), godfatherism has become a scary phenomenon in Nigeria politics. This is because, godfathers have sustained a reputation for deploying their wealth to secure party nomination for candidates of their choice, sponsor their elections, and also manipulating the electoral process for their selfish interest.
This dominant political culture has not only been sustained by privileged few but has become perversed and it is today a major source of tension and political instability in the polity. The concept of godfatherism is firmly establishing itself as a guiding principle in contemporary Nigeria politics.
According to Chibuzo (2006), godfathers are generally defined as men who have the power personally to determine both who gets nominated to contest elections and who wins in the election. According to Adeoyo (2009), the concept of godfatherism is synonymous to intermediary, mentoring, benevolence and support, and sponsoring. In a political setting, the concept is an ideology that is championed on the belief that certain individuals posseses considerable means to unilaterally determine who gets a party’s ticket to run for an election and who wins in electoral contest.
In the views of Bassey and Enetak (2008), godfatherism connotes the power and influence of people who are politically relevant in deciding who gets nominated to contest elections and win during the election. The concept of politics according to Harold Lasswell (1930), he defines politics as “who gets what, when, how”. Dudley (1975), adds why so that the question should be “who gets what, when, how and why”. Politics thus entails the making of decisions regarding what a society should do, when, how and why it should do it, and who should determine these things.
According to David Easton (1953), he posits that, politics is the authoritative allocation of values, meaning that, politics is concerned with those interactions by which values are authoritatively allocated for a society, and in consonance with the above definition of politics, Easton has defined a “political system” as “the set of interactions through which values are authoritatively allocated for a society. According to Nnoli (1986), politics is referred to all those activities which are directly or indirectly associated with the seizure of state power, the consolidation of state power and the use of state.
However, conflict is very often the result of the interaction of political, economic and social instability, frequently stemming from bad governance, failed economic policies and inappropriate development programmes which have exacerbated ethnic or religious difference.
For instance, in Akwa Ibom State, 2015 in question, the general election which various political actors such as Nsima Ekere, Godswill Akpabio, Ambassador Assam Assam, Engr. Patrick Ekpotu, Ekpenyong Ntekim, Effiong Abia, Umana Umana, Bassey Albert, Victor Attah, Udoedehe, Prof. Richard King, Larry Esin, Obong Paul Ekpo and Udom Emmanuel’s face-off election, Akpabio and other godfathers protégé crisis in Akwa Ibom State do not only portend great danger to our democratic experiment, but also on the very essence and validity of our existence as a state. The billions of naira spent by Akwa Ibom godfathers for bankrolling the elections of their godsons, have totally monetized elections in Akwa Ibom State, which automatically disqualifies men of honour, character and integrity from holding elected public positions.
However, in Urue Offong Oruko, zoning has been the major factor that brings unity within the local government. The local government has been divided into two developments area; Oruko Development area and Urue Offong development area for the purpose of reducing the much influence of godfatherism and political conflict in the area.
For instance, Hon. Uno Etim Uno from Oruko development area was House Member at the same time that Elder Okpoyo Etifit from Oruko development area was council chairman through the influence of godfather forgetting that each has developed zoning to put an end to strife, violence, disunity and mistrust that marginalization usually breed.

GODFATHERISM AND POLITICAL CONFLICT IN AKWA IBOM STATE: A CASE STUDY OF URUE OFFONG/ORUKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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