1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a West African country with a population of over one hundred million people, a former British dependency. The country is bordered in the north by Niger, northeast by Chad, to the east by Cameroon, to the south by the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) and to the south west by Benin republic. The Niger and Benue rivers which join at Lokoja divided the country into three segments the approximated Nigeria’s political divisions up to 1963 i.e. Northern, Western and eastern regions. Though home to hundreds of other ethnic groups (Each having its own language, customs, religion and traditional political system) these regions were respectively dominated by the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo ethnic groups.
To be sure, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, but for its abundant natural resources, petroleum, fertile soil etc, and the country’s population would have been a terrible liability, eroding standard of living and tasking deviously the limited infrastructure and social amenities. Oil discovered in the southern part of the country since 1956 has indeed become the most important factor in the economy, accounting for about 90 percent of the country’s annual gross. Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914, only about a decade after the defeat of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1903 and other Islamic states by the British which were to constitute much of Northern Nigeria. The after math of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of the which was Cameroon, to French, Belgian and British mandates. Cameroon was divided in French and British parts, the latter of which was further subdivided in French and Northern parts. Following a plebiscite in 1961, the Southern Cameroon elected to region French Cameroon, while the Northern Cameroon opted to join Nigeria, a more which added to Nigeria’s already large northern population. The territory comprises much of what is now northeastern Nigeria, and a large part of the areas affected by the insurgency.
According to a Nigeria study on demographic and religion. Muslims make up 50.5 percent of the population. Muslims mainly live in the north of the country; the majority of the Nigerian Muslims are Sunnis. Christians are the second-largest religious group and make up 48.7 percent of the population. They predominate in the central and southern part of the country (Wikipedia, 2017).
Boko Haram conducted its operations more or less peaceful during the first seven years of its existence. That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. Prior to that, the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warning about the increasingly militant character.
When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in Bauchi, speaking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly “use fuel-laden motorcycles” and “bows with poison arrows” so attack a police station. The group’s founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was also killed during this time while still police custody. After Yusuf’s killing, AbubakarShekau became the leader and still holds the position as of 2017 (Wikipedia, 2017). In light of the above, this study seeks to examine The Nature and Management of Internally Displaced Persons in northern Nigeria from 2012 to 2017.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The ongoing insurgency in northern Nigeria called “Boko Harm” and the governments often brutal attempts to suppress it, have produced tide of refugees and internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria and in some neighboring countries like Cameroon, Chad, and Niger republic, (Council on Foreign Relation, 2014). It is on the basis and strength of the above that this study focus on examining and investigating the Nature and Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Northern Nigeria from 2012 to 2017 as it affects the economic, social and culture, educational and political development of Nigerians.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the light of the foregoing, this research seeks to find answers to the following questions:
What is the relationship between insurgency and internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria?What is the level of the federal, state government’s efforts toward the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria from 2912-2017?What are the challenges that hinder the effectiveness of the federal, state governments and other body’s policies and its implementation toward the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this research work is to examine the nature and management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria. To achieve this aim, the following objectives are set:
To find out the nature of internal displacement of persons in Northern Nigeria.To find out the relationship between insurgency and internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria.To assess the level of effectiveness of federal, states governments and other bodies in the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria from 2012-2017.To investigate the challenges that hinders the effectiveness of the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Due to the continuous attack and bombing which leads to further internal displacement of person’s in northern Nigeria, the following assumptions are made
H1 Boko Haram insurgency may likely be a threat to economic, social, cultural, educational and political development of northern Nigeria and Nigeria at large.
H2: Insurgency and internally displaced persons may likely be caused by poor security provision or efforts.
H3: Poverty and illiteracy are fertilizer for insurgency in the world and no in particular.
H4: The majority of IDPs in northern Nigeria are caused by Boko Haram insurgency. Internally displaced persons are efficiently managed by the federal, states government and other bodies.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The Significance of the study will be of three fold I.e to the researcher himself, to the body of knowledge and to the society at large.
i To the researcher: The study will further expose him to the concepts insurgency and in internal displacement of persons and how it can be properly managed to facilitate proper security in order to facilitate rapid human development in Nigeria.
ii To the body of knowledge: Through reviewing of related literature, the study will identify gaps left uncovered or fill by previous researchers and fill these gaps. By doing this, the study must have immensely added to the existing knowledge.
iii To the society at large: Similar to that of researcher, it will make the members of the society get acquainted to insurgency and internally displaced persons (IDPs), it’s problems in the society, and how it affects human condition in his environment which make the economic, cultural, political, social and educational sector to fall below standard and how it can be properly managed to improve security situation in order to facilitate concrete, rapid development in Northern Nigeria and Nigeria at large.
Additionally, it will be of immense important and served as source of secondary data or material for future researchers who may want to carry out similar study on the topic under investigation.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The appropriate methodology to be employed in carrying out this will be content analysis. The Nature and Management of Internally displaced persons in northern Nigeria from 2012 to 2017 will be content-analyzed. Secondary sources of data gathered through textbooks, journals, articles, magazines and newspapers and previously published and unpublished materials etc are adopted.
1.8 SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope in the context of research refers to areas in which the researcher intends to cover while limitation on the other hand implies areas in which the research intends not to cover. As a result of this, the study which is on the nature and management of internally displaced persons in northern Nigeria will cover the period of 2012 – 2017. It will be limited to GoodluckEbele Jonathan and MuhammedBuhari’s administrations and not to other administrations in Nigeria.
EXAMINING AND INVESTIGATING THE NATURE AND MANAGEMENT OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA FROM 2012 TO 2017 AS IT AFFECTS THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURE, EDUCATIONAL AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIANS