Effect Of Office Automation On The Productivity Of Secretaries
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This research work concentrated on “the effect of office automation on the productivity of secretaries in Anammco Plc Emene Enugu. In chapter one the work started with the introduction of the study dealt with the background of the study statement of problems purpose of the study significance of the study delimitation of the study and research questions.
Chapter two dealt with the literature review which was treated under the office function of the office the office machines merits of office automation sources of acquiring office machines designing training programme for office machines operators and maintenance of office machines.
In chapter three it treated research design and methodology area of study population of the study sample study instrument method of data collection and method of data analysis.
Chapter four treated presentation and analysis of data based on research of data based on research questions Finally chapter five treated the discussion on the finding conclusion recommendation suggestion for further research and limitation of the study.
Whitehead (1986) defined office as “a room or building where clerical work are carried out to start develop and control many activities of business” such services include decrial secretarial accounting and research duties.
Denyer (1974) also defined office as “any room where clerical work is habitually performed. He further stressed that the provision of the facts on which the decision of management are made is one of the most important function of the office and this has very real nd essential contribution to production.
He is of the opinion that the office can only make this vital contribution if there is efficient office automation and proper use of the office services by the general management. However in my own opinion I attributed that an office can be defined as “any place under a building where management decision and over all control of people’s activities are clerically taken down by some of the employed of an establishment who may be specifically employed for the purpose”
Automation according to Terry (1966) is the arrangement where one or more machines are operated without human starter button the oxford advance learners dictionary of current Engligh by Harnby (1977) defined automation as the use of methods and machines to save human labour.
According to Croft (1971) office automation is therefore the introduction of devices in the office to save human labour. Before the advent of these devices such as computer word processor adding machines typewriter mailing equipment etc. man has been finding office work monotonous tedious which leads to inaccuracy inefficiency and consequently low productivity.
There is no doubt that primitive man used his fingers for counting ten the number of finger of both hands became the basis for familiar counting system. This served man till the Stone Age when pebbles were used for counting.
The advent of writing marked the beginning of the activities associated with office automation need. As the need for speed accuracy and standardization increased the symbol and tools for recording changed but the basis activities remain the same devices were conceived of and used as the years passed.
The most significant of which are the arithmetic machines telephone typewriter calculating machines mail equipment etc. The greatest is the advent of computer which came in the years between 1812 and 1833 with the idea and efforts of Charles Babbage.
As the method of performing the activities advanced more and more data were accumulated and processed certainly in an effort provide management with more timely accurate and comprehensible data for production and planning operation.
Owing to the difficulties encountered by secretarial workers in automated offices Terry (1996) stressed the necessity for manufacturing industries to develop office automation management in their various environment to enable them keep track with the technological development introduced within the office environment.
He further stressed that industries that do not evolve and well articulated office management sooner or later discover that inefficiency becomes the order of the day and the organizations objectives. Therefore office automation means the performance of office function with machines. It is also the same as office machines or office technology.
Croft (1971) in his conclusion expressed that automation is meant to upset old pattern of life. Office equipment such as computer used in increasing productivity is now available and man is finding new benefits albeit with growing pains in changing social order
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is need for office automation in order to make secretaries dynamic so that as organizations change in technology for improved productivity secretaries can grapple with the demand of such changes.
Many people fear that office automation has come to replace the traditional secretary or to push her out of job. Many manufacturing industries face the problem of low productivity and inefficiency which can be traced to poor method from manual operations some industries still operate or work in their office with annual typewriters poor communication network like out-dated telephones etc which make office work boring inaccurate as well as dissatisfying.
It is noted also that this manual method makes it impossible for offices to get rid of some old personal files which would have been stored in the computer and help in creating spaces in the office.
This calls for the need for an automated office where electronic machines can be used to perform office jobs what are the effects of these machines on the productivity of the secretary?
Will these machines enhance the secretarial productivities or will they throw the secretary out of job? It is based on this that the researcher surveyed the effects of office automation on increasing the productivity of secretaries in manufacturing industries in Enugu State taking ANAMCO PLC as a case in.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study is to find out the effects of office automation on the productivity of secretaries in ANAMMCO Plc.
To do this the research will try to
- Find out whether ANAMMCO PLC has automated offices
- Find out how they acquired that office equipment
- Find out if they have trained personnel to man those sophisticated office equipment.
- Find out whether the use of that equipment positively or negatively influences the performance of their office tasks
5. Recommend solution to any problem identified as to the use of modern automated office equipment
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no trained personnel to man those sophisticated office equipment.
H1: there are trained personnel to man those sophisticated office equipment
H02: ANAMMCO PLC has no automated offices
H2: ANAMMCO PLC has automated offices
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is of immense importance in the scene that it intends to x-ray the reasons for office automation and its effects if any on the productivity of secretaries in manufacturing industries with particulate references to ANAMCO PLC.
The positive effects of office automation will go a long way to help manufacturing industries benefit more on secretarial works in terms on secretarial which head to high productivity. This study will educate the illiterate class of manufactures to change their belief that office automation is capital intensive and not profit oriented.
It will encourage fresh graduates who intend to go into manufacturing business in planning their administrative offices. It will help manufacturers to know the merits of office automation by way of acquiring the best quality machines determining training and maintenance.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers effect of office automation on the productivity of secretaries. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
AUTOMATION: Automation can be defined as the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance
PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input
SECRETARY: secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events.
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1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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