BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Physics is a branch of science that deals with the properties and composition of matters in relationship with energy. Physics is also an experimental science; hence it requires units and measurement of the physical quantities. The low academic achievement of students in physics in secondary schools recently has been a subject of concern that parents, teachers, the government and even the general public sought for ways of reversing the trend. The improvement of student’s academic performance in physics in various schools emanate from teaching aid than the school itself. Also the academic performance of students in any school depends on the pedagogical content of the particular subject and the level of utilization of appropriate improvised resources (Musa, 2011). Instructional materials can be seen as communication media that carry information between the instructor and the learner with an instructional intent of facilitating learning. Hence, improvised resources and media can store and distribute the experience of the instructors to the learner. Amadi (2012), reported that improvised resources are anything that teacher uses to facilitate teaching and learning aside from the conventional methods.
Education is a major tool for individual empowerment and National development. A National educational system is vital because it produces the personnel that are required to function in various facets of national life and development process. Gray (2001), noted that the goals of wealth creation, employment, generation, poverty reduction and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system.‖ Education has been accorded a high rating in Nigeria, and the demand for education is popular because of the desire of members of the society to give their children a better chance in life. The demand for education has become explosive and one which no government can afford to ignore. Education in Nigeria has reached a cross-road that demand a change in direction, a change in our understanding and acceptance of what educational standard and quality are, the high demand of education in Nigeria give rise to the expansion of education. Educational adjustment of the child is conditioned by the nature and demands of society to which the child should be adopted and attained. The most distinctive feature of modern society is its science – based technology. Thus, the Nigerian National Policy on Education (2004, revised) highlights that Government recognizes education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development.
Learning process or program in schools were designed for the training of skills, the development of special attitude, interest and acquisition of knowledge and for this to be effective and permanent instructional material must be utilized for learning. For example in the course of studying, students are expected to solve problems on the concept, produce a toy car, produce an electric fan, and also demonstrate various forms of experiments involving electric motor in physics (NBTE, 2003). All the above skills require the use of practical teaching; this is why the Nigeria policy on Education (FGN, 2014) specifies that the approach to instruction in both class teaching and practical works should stress the use of appropriate source of materials to enhance teaching.
Practical teaching with the use of improvised resources, according to Omosewo (2009) develops in students appreciation of the spirit and method of problem solving. In the word of the popular Chinese Proverbs, Note we “what I hear, I forget, what I see I remember, and what I do, I understand”. The greatest percent of what I learn and remember is greatly influence by the judicious use of instructional materials to task the various sense organs of the learner. Instructional materials are materials used to facilitate teaching process. They enable teachers to communicate ideas and concepts with ease as they appeal to much sense at a time (Munchi, 2008). They are also used by the teacher to simplify their teaching. This materials include; audio and audio-visual aids and could either be concrete or non-concrete. Iherionwu (2011), Instructional materials are device or object which helps the teacher to teach more meaningfully with the learner. Instructional materials promote efficiency of education by improvingthe qualities of teaching and learning. The use of improvised resources in the classroom have the potential to help the teacher explain contents clearly, resulting in better understanding of the by the learner.
Adeyela (2000) found in her study that large class size is not conducive for serious academic work. In the same vein, Afolabi (2002) found no significant relationship among class size and students’ learning outcomes. Yara (2010) in his study on class size and academic achievement of students in mathematics in Southwestern Nigeria found out that the performance of students in large classes was very low (23%) compared to those students in smaller classes (64%). There was difference in the performance of male and female students in either group. He therefore recommended that policy makers and government should ensure that more classrooms are built and number of students in a class should not be more than 30. The foregoing differing findings, opinions and observations call for further investigation into the relationship between class size and student academic achievement in Ekiti State, which this present study was out to do.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Various researchers have discovered from studies that the Nigeria educational system has been challenged with adequate and effective utilization of instructional materials at Senior Secondary School. Similarly aside from the conventional materials utilized in teaching there seemed to be gross scarcity of non-utilization of improvised and local material for the study of physics in Senior Secondary Schools. The researcher observed this while on teaching practice and in the school attended during his Secondary Education. While the use of conventional materials are appropriate for the educational system in Senior Secondary School, especially with the modern technological advancement, they seem to be foreign hence, the use of improvised research basically our cultural based will enhance effective teaching and learning feared towards improved performance and acquisitions of students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to compare the use of improvised resources in teaching electric motor in physics and the academic performance of students.
Examining the effect of improvised resources in teaching electric motor in physics and students retention ability.
To determine the effect of class sizes on academic performance of students on the concept of electric motor using improvised resources.
To compare the performance of male and female students taught on the concept of electric motor using improvise resources.
1.4 Research Question
What difference exist in the academic performance of student taught electric motor using improvised resources and those taught without improvised resources?
What difference exist in the academic performance of male and female students taught electric motor using improvise resources?
To what extent does class size (small and large) affect students’ academic performance when taught using improvised resources?
There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students of small and large class of students taught the concept of electric motor using improvised resources.
There is no significant difference between academic performance of male and female students taught electric motor using improvised resources.
There is no significant differences in academic performance of students taught the concept of electric motor in physics using improvise resources and those taught without considering their retention ability.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will awaken the consciousness of the teachers towards the use of improvised resources to teach the students when to substitute for the unavailable of the conventional instructional materials. This will make the teacher to raise up a challenge of lack of resources materials in teaching.
It will provide empirical evidence on the effectiveness of improvise resources on the students’ academic performance in physics.
It will enhance the Government authority to develop indigenous resources materials to also enhance effective teaching and learning.
It will help the state government, principal and proprietors of school that are not properly equipped to use locally improvise resources.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is focused on the use of improvise resources in teaching electric motor and academic performance of student’s in physics. This study was conducted using Senior Secondary School students (SS1) physics student’s in Oron Local Government Area Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The content covered in the study is electric motor. Gender and class size are the other variables of the study researched on.
EFFECT OF IMPROVISED RESOURCES IN TEACHING ELECTRIC MOTOR IN PHYSICS AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS.
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