1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
CBN exclusively regulates the activities of financial corporations and promotes the development of specialized or development-related financial institutions. The SEC is the central supervisory authority on the capital market. The Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) is an institution of self-regulation or user regulation. Issuers, registrars and investment dealers, who also interact with the money market, are making the capital chain more complex. The Federal Ministry of Finance and the CBN form the monetary authority and joint control of the bureau de change. NAICOM is the regulator in the insurance sector, while FMBN regulates mortgage financing activities in Nigeria. Saving is a current consumer sacrifice, which involves the accumulation of capital, which in the long run provides additional power that can be used for consumption in the future (Gersovitz, 1988). In other words, saving is the difference between current income and consumption. It was also defined as “latent consumption” or as a part of unspent income.
Savings are considered as a financial asset accumulated by public and private entities in the organized financial system. The expansion of financial savings requires the transfer of funds from the private and household sectors to the business or enterprise sector, which in turn leads to increased investment, income growth, employment and capital formation. This goal can not be achieved without increasing the savings rate, which Nigerians save. Due to high bank fees, low capital gains, insufficient investments in productive instruments and non-productive investments, gold, jewelery, income inequality and demonstration effects, etc. State of development of the aforementioned financial sector as well as the savings habits of the citizens. The increase in bank charges is one of the main causes of austerity, which will eventually lead to a slowdown in economic growth and economic development (Uremadu, 2006). The relationship between savings and banking fees has always been very close; hence the unsatisfactory growth performance of many developing countries. Example: Nigeria has been attributed to poor savings and bad investments. This weak growth has generally resulted in a dramatic decline in investment. Domestic savings rates have not improved and have thus exacerbated the already uncertain balance of payments situation (Chete, 1999). The role of savings in a country’s economic growth can not be stressed enough. Conceptually, savings is the portion of income that is not spent on current consumption. Instructions in the financial sector, such as deposit banks / commercial banks, mobilize savings in an economy, the deposit rate must be relatively high and the rate of inflation must be stabilized to ensure a high positive real rate, which will encourage investors to save on their disposable income. In Nigeria, Nnann, Odoko and Englama (2004) consider that the amount of funds raised by financial institutions is quite small for a number of reasons, ranging from high bank charges to low savings rates due to bad habits or banking cultures. The banks’ attitude towards small savers is another obstacle to raising funds. Another limitation to the mobilization of savings is the fact that the concentration of banks and their offices in favor of urban areas is biased. One of the reasons is that established banks underestimate the austerity measures to mobilize and invest in productive investments in rural areas. It is often argued that very few resources can be removed from income and consumption because the rural economy operates at an almost existing level. For this reason, it has not been found that there are large amounts of unused funds in rural areas, although small units per person. In Nigeria, there is a general lack of savings incentives that have a negative impact on savings. Some of these factors include: bad banking habits, bank attitudes to economies of scale, bad orientation, unemployment, instability of the political system, corrupt taxation system, instability of the banking system, we will closely monitor the impact of bank charges on savings
Further efforts are needed in Nigeria, in particular to mobilize small savings in urban and rural areas and the process of financial intermediation itself, as the saving culture in Nigeria is very poor compared to other countries. other developing countries (Uremadu, 2006). In this context, it was noted that in carrying out their tasks, commercial banks had the opportunity to mobilize funds and use them for investment. In view of the problems associated with the formal sector, informal Savings Banks Associations, if well developed, would not only facilitate the financing of economic development but also contribute to income development, leading to the establishment of a coherent economic policy. This creates the environment that we urgently need, and there is an urgent need to encourage Nigerians to change their current attitude towards saving.
Commercial bank charges for transactions become unbearable for customers, forcing some of them out of the banking business and causing institutions and regulators to influence budgetary decisions. Companies and authorities.
As mentioned above, as national policies become macroeconomic or microcosmic, variables are generated that may affect the economy’s and financial actors’ propensity to spend. This study could try to examine the magnitude and direction of variables such as interest rates, income, growth, urbanization, external trade (aid), fiscal policy, etc. from a political point of view. about savings in Nigeria.
1.4 Research questions
Therefore, this research question will try and answer the following:
what are the charges Union bank PLC put on their transactions
What are the factors that reduce savings in Nigeria?
What impact do Union bank charges have on the savings culture of their customers?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In the light of the above problems, the objectives of this research work include:-
To ascertain those factors that affect bank savings in Nigeria.
To identify the various irregular bank charges made by commercial anks in Nigeria.
To determine the effect of these charges on saving savings culture of banks customers, using Union bank PLC as a casestudy.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
The hypotheses to be tested in this research work are:
a. Ho; Union bank charges have no significant impact on savings in Nigeria.
b. H1; Union bank charges have significant impact on savings in Nigeria.
Ho; there is a positive relationship between bank charges and savings Nigeria.
H1; there is no positive relationship between bank charges and savings in Nigeria
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research will be extremely useful for policy makers, especially those involved in the development of Nigeria’s economic program. This will help raise the awareness of the masses about the different bank charges and the reasons for these fees and help the public to identify unfair fees. This will help them to choose the appropriate policy in the area of macroeconomic policy management, especially those that have an impact on savings in Nigeria. In addition, the results and suggestions of this research work will create greater awareness in the financial sector or sectors to appreciate the impact of the Confederation. Government of Nigeria, through the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Federal Ministry of Finance, to improve its policy, which has had an impact on the savings achieved in recent years. Finally, this study will contribute modestly to broadening students’ knowledge of the practical and real situation of theories they learn in the classroom.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The scope of this study is to estimate and evaluate the effect of bank charges on savings culture of customers. Using Union bank PLC as case study.
The Limitations are constrained to lack of fund, human error and limited time frame, which imposed difficulties when serious attempt to effect a general in – depth towards this study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bank; A financial institution that accepts deposits and channels the money into lending activities.
Savings; a fund of money put by as a reserve
Bank charges; cost of carrying out banking transactions
1.8 Organization of the study.
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one of the dissertation deals with the general description of the study, the definition of the problem, the research question, the objectives of the research and the importance of the study. Chapter 2 presents all the relevant bibliographical research on waste management and related concepts. Chapter 3 deals with the identification of the most appropriate research methodology for this research, and Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the data of the lessonslearned in this field. Finally, Chapter Five summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations.
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