DRAMA AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CONFLCIT RESOLUTION IN NIGERIA. A LITERARY ANALYSIS OF AMANDA ADICHE’S FOR LOVE OF BIAFRA
Literary appreciation is the hallmark literary venture. It gives light into the inner motives of the writer in question and brings about the actual essence of the work.
Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafra is a text that portrays the consequences of diligent word view of Nigerians from different tribes and ethnic groups.
Chapter one is an introduction into the project. It brings into focus the background of study, scope, justification and most especially the statement of problem, which is hinged on the critical analysis of Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafra as it concerns conflict resolution.
Chapter two deals with the review of literary works that boader on conflict resolution in Drama.
Chapter four dissects the characters, their cultural background, worldview and interrelationship.
Chapter five summarizes the findings and the recommendations made by the researcher. It also contains the works cited.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents
Chapter one: Background of study
1.1 statement of problem
1.2 scope of study
1.3 significance of study
1.4 research methodology
1.5 definition of terms
Chapter Two: Literature review
2.1 review of relevant literature
Chapter three: Textual analysis
3.1 Biography of Amanda Adiche
3.2 Thematic Thrust of for love of Biafra
3.3 Language and symbolism in the text
Chapter Four: character analysis
4.1 characterisation (Different characters)
4.3 cultural background
5.1 summary of findings
5.4 work cited
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.1 statement of problem
Drama has served a wide variety of functions at different times and in different places. The Roman writer, Horace, said that drama was designed ‘’To delight and to instruct’’. Often time people argue in favour of the former purpose, while others argue in favour of the latter purpose, but that some degree of each is arguably correct.
In the classical period drama assumed a pride of place by the use to which it was put with respect to the religious and civic observances of the age. Drama’s basic objective was to play the allied role of making graphic religious or civic teachings. By implication, plays emphasized instrument.
The renaissance saw examples of theatre that were almost purely instructional at schools and universities along with examples that were pure entertainment in the popular theatre at farms and market places, and a great variety of combinations of the two.
As the years went by, popular drama stressed entertainments from presentations in farce and folk theatres of the 18th century to the offerings of major commercial theatre today. Much of the more serious literary drama from the 18th century on, has sought to encourage it’s audiences to become better informed and more thoughtful about a range of political, social and moral issues. Recently, drama is shifting from the popular convention of entertainment and instruction from aesthetic or artistic experience. Howler it is evident that audiences go to the theatres from the mixture of motivations. These motivations include curiosities, pleasure-seeking and a desire for knowledge or aesthetic experience. But all of these motivations include curiosities, pleasure-seeking and a desire for knowledge or aesthetic experience. But all of these experiences are intensified by the public nature of drama. Because drama is a literary form designed for public presentation, writing about drama has often explored how drama relates to society. Some theorists have argued that as art reflecting social concerns for an audience, drama is a clear instrument for social change. Other theorists have argued that, the group orientation of the audiences. Despite all these disagreement about drama’s revolutionary potential. Most theorists will agree that a central purpose of drama has always been to provide a means for a society to reflect upon itself and it is believes. This explains the reason behind the influence that every society has some per formative elements.
These elements are evident in our political campaigns holiday
Celebrations; sports events, religious ceremonies and children’s make believe (Brocket 1991:1)
These elements are put together for dramatic purposes. Suffice it to say, from the above assertion, that the contents of drama are most often than not drawn from past events, using the elements of (plot) expresses a phenomenon. Which is drawn from the day to day experiences of man in the society. This phenomenon is conflict.
The conflicts in drama as expressed earlier are most often drawn from the society. This phenomenon is conflict.
The conflicts in drama as expressed earlier are most often drawn from the society since every society has its fair share of society conflicts. These conflicts to a large extend define between two tenants living in the same compounds definitely will determine the mode of relationship between them. This relationship of course will not be cordial. This unit instance can be extended to the Nigerian society at large.
Nigeria being one of the largest (923,768 KMZ) geographically, socially and culturally most diversified African countries with over 250 identified ethnic groups and different religious inclination, has been enmeshed in all forms of conflicts right from the first republic of the 1960s. These conflicts have left indelible marks on the chronicles of the nation. Such indelible marks left by the Aba and Opobo women’s rebellion in 1929, Burutu (1945), Enugu (1949) shooting incidents, the coup of 1929, the upheaval triggered off the coup of 1966 and the consequent Nigerian civil ear, the Yoruba farmer’s riot of 1967. The religious chlashes, (Jos, Kano Kaduna riots, the recent political and socio economic instability on the country and most emphatically the Nigerian that conflict resolution is an inevitable issue. In spite of efforts at resolutions of these conflicts they remain ostensibly not totally resolved, their effects are subtly shooting out new sukers that appear to be ominous in the nation today. The recent struggles that led to the declaration of the Biafran nation championed now by Uwazuruike and the Guerilla activities in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria spear headed by Asari Dokubo justify the last inference.
Against this backdrop Nigerian more than any African nation today needs a giant effort in conflict resolution. The political activities in the nation point towards an impending row come 2007, bearing this in mind, it is apparent that a research into conflict resolution is imperative. The research problem here is hinged on the analysis of conflict resolution in Nigeria using drama as an instrument. In other words, how drama can be sued to resolve the conflicts in Nigeria. In delimiting the research problem, Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafrn, a play text that expresses conflcits during the civil war will be used as case study. The statement of problem therefore is expressed through the statement below.
Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafra, reflects drama as an instrument for conflict resolution in Nigeria.
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY
The focus of this study is not on the Nigerian civil war. It is not an attempt to review or to delve onto the complexities of the civil war. Rather it is a plunge into one of the basic functions of drama in the society, which apart from its role to entertain and to educate can also serve the purpose of propaganda in line with the vision of this study.
The play for Love of Biafra, is chosen to delimit the research problem and also, since its theme is hinged on one of the major conflicts experiences in the country, it is relevant for a research of this nature.
There is no attempt what so ever to blame any tribe or any character expressed in the play as regards the war. The analysis of the conflicts in the play will take a very objectives and neutral stance. In other words, the problem that is emphasized here is conflict. It is based on this that other books and plays expressing societal conflicts will be reviewed in chapter two.
This study on the other hand will unveil the aesthetics of drama. Which can be sued for conflict resolution. The functions of the elements, which can be sued for conflict resolution. The functions of the elements of drama as an art will be analysed. Also the method by which these conflict regulation will be established.
It is imperative to note that, this research is not poised to establish tha conflicts can only be resolved through drama. However, it asserts that drama is indeed a viable avenue for conflict resolution because of its ability to instruct through the medium of entertainment – a necessary elixir for cooling tensions and also its ability to reach out to a greater mass of people through the new technology of the cinema and television (cable). Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafra is the model for this study. Although it is centred on the Nigerian civil war and its allied effects, the approach adopted in this project will serve, hopefully as a model applicable to other kinds of conflict.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is significant in the sense that the conclusions drawn will be used for the assessment of the researcher for the award of the Bachelor of Arts in Theatre Arts, University of Port Harcourt.
As it concerns the society, this study will unveil the need for the adoption of drama as one of the instrument for conflict resolution in the country. Further, it will expose the impact of drama on the citizens if those who are theatre illiterates are educated on the basic functions of the theatre. This stride is important since the Federal Government’s interest in arts and culture is dampening by the day. If the outcome of a research of this nature is made known to the Government, their proposed bid intension to privatise the National theatre Iganmu Lagos, would not have come up. In a broader sense, this study can further instruct the committee reviewing the cultural policy on how best to adopt drama for specific purposes laundering the Nigerian image and especially for conflict resolution. By implication, the different state Councils for Arts and Culture would be very effective, adopting drama not only for entertainment but for didactic purposes.
This study will lay here the need for diplomacy in conflict resolutions. It will also establish the fact that diplomacy is the best system of government since it is only through democracy that drama could be adopted as an instrument for instruction.
A subtle insight on the need for a wider readership in drama will be brought into focus. In other words, the precise essence of drama as literature will be elucidated.
The outcome of this study in no small measure will establish intellectual facts concerning conflict resolution. By so doing the techniques and styles required in expressing drama as an instrument for conflict resolution will be added to the already existing knowledge in the field.
This research could serves as a reference for theatre practitioners, and scholars who wish to delve more into the subject matter. Most importantly, this study stands out as one of the foremost review on Amanda Adiche’s play for Love of Biafra as an instrument for conflict resolution in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study is purely analytical; the nature of the research problems limits it, thus prompting the adoption of the Literary Methodology. This is an analytical methodology. It has to do with sourcing written and printed library and archival materials especially books, journals, reports, and literary works such as plays, novels, and poems.
The research problem evidently is such which much has been written about, thus the data to be collected by the researcher has to be earlier scholarly opinions on them. This form of research methodology is inevitably used during the course of this study. To explain in detail the steps taken as regards the methodology, the following steps were used.
The study designThe type of study design usedMethod of data collectionThe study Design
This is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose and objective with economy in procedure. (Agala: 1996,26).
My research design is eluciedated through my proposal where I chose a researchable topic. Drama as an instrument for conflict resolution in Nigeria. A literally analysis of Adiche’s For Love of Biafra. The topic definitely is researchable in that, several books have been written about drama and more so, the play’s theme has to do with society conflict.
The first part of my proposal is the statement of the problem. This has been exhaustively explained in the sub-title statement of problem; in this chapter.
The second part of mu proposal includes the rationale behind the study. Part of this has been explained in subsection 1.1 of this chapter. However, it is explained in sub-section 1.2 (scope of study) also in this chapter.
The third part of my proposal includes the significance of study, which has been explained as well in this chapter (refer to subsection 1.3)
The fourth part of the proposal has to do with the research methodology adopted.
The fifth part of the proposal deals with the outline of the study, the chapters titles and subtitles. This proposal was duly approved by my supervisor. Based on the proposal, my research design was formulated.
The types of study Design used
bearing in mind the approved proposal, the following types of study design were adopted;
Content AnalysisSurvey designContent Analysis
This is systematic, objectives and procedure revised to examine the contents of recorded information (Ajala; 1996: 29). Haven marshalled out my proposal or plan, the facts needed for the study were reviewed. This is expressed in chapter two of this study.
A careful study of previous works written by other scholars and also plays expressing conflicts where intently studied, relevant points noted and written out from libraries, bookshops, friends and lectures. Relevant data were collated by making motes of them. The use of index and format was mostly handy. These were labelled and arranged alphabetically on a rack, by entering the notes from a particular source by its author’s surname.
In addition to the index law, the pocket note book containing similar data were used. Bearing in mind how time consuming the index method is, the researcher also resorted more to the pocket book, which was most convenient.
This could be descriptive or analytical. In the course of this study, only the analytical design was used.
The analytical survey design is an attempt to describe and explain why certain situation exist (Ajala 1996:29).
The data collected were analysed as expressed in the subsequent chapters that reveal how drama is an instrument for conflict cresolution in Nigeria using Amanda Adiche’s for Love of Biafra.
iii. Types of Data sources
Two types of data sources were adopted. They are;
Primary dataSecondary dataPrimary Data
The primary source consists of the information collected from the play text, for Love of Biafra. This in other words means that the play text is the primary source.
As explained earlier, most of the inferences were drawn from the primary source.
The secondary data consists of earlier scholarly opinions contained in published books, journals, plays and the electronic media (internet) treating issues on society conflicts.
In addition to the primary source, data was collected from secondary sources. These data are reflected in chapter two of this study where books, plays and the bibliography are listed as the secondary sources used.
The careful planning of this research work and the adoption of the proper types of methodology explains the reason behind a smooth research, despite some limitations.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Here attempt will be made to define terms in the context in which they are used on this study.
The oxford collegiate dictionary defines drama in various forms.
A play for the theatre, television or radioPlays considered as a form of literature written to be performed.
The African encyclopaedia defines drama thus: A type of ritual, a way of expressing oneself and a form of entertainment. The last definition of drama will be used throughout study.
The African Encyclopaedia defines theatre as places where plays and other forms of entertainment area performed. Other definitions of theatre express the totality of all element of the theatre. The theatre in the context of this study encompasses all the element combined for the purpose of expressing men past experiences. These element elements include the auditorium, time, place and participants (players, audience). Scenario (agenda, scripts, goal, text, rules) clothing (uniform, costume, mask, make-up) sound (speech, music) and movement (gestures, pantomime, dance).
However, people often make a distinction between drama which concerns the written text or script from the performance and theatre, which concerns the performance of this script. In this work, drama and theatre may be used interchangeably unless where it is necessary to make a clear-cut distinction between them for the purpose of emphasis.
DRAMA AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CONFLCIT RESOLUTION IN NIGERIA. A LITERARY ANALYSIS OF AMANDA ADICHE’S FOR LOVE OF BIAFRA