CAPITAL MARKET IN NIGERIA, ITS EVOLUTION, FUNCTION AND IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The rate of economic development of any nation is inextricably liked to the sophistication of its financial markets. Financial markets assist the nation of the world to give the needed financial resources and skills for growth and development.
Apart from promoting a sound and efficient payments mechanism, the financial intimidation. The financial market is an institutional arrangement that facilities the inter-mediation of funds in an economy.
By financial inter-mediation, it means mobilization of financial resources from surplus spending units and the channeling of such to deficit spending units and the channeling of such funds to deficit spending units for production investment and the generation of assets or securities in the process.
Thus the financial system generates a wide range of financial instruments (assets), which are means of transferring purchasing power and are tailored to suit the time preferences of both lenders and borrowers.The financial market performs an economic function by facilitating the transfer of real economic resources from the lenders to the borrowers.
By the inducement of interest income, the market facilitates the transference of purchasing power from the lender to the investor who wishes to exercise demand over resources. When the financial market is efficient, funds flow freely and rapidly among its various sources and uses.
As long as financial instrument remains substitutable for each other, changes in supply and demand in the money market have a rapid over effect into the capital market. Financial markets are therefore constitutional whenever participants with aid of infrastructure technology and over devises facilitates the mobilization and channeling of funds into productive investments.
The importance of the financial market lies in financial intermediation to link the deficit sector with the surplus of the economy. In the intermediation process, financial intermediaries engage principally in matching lenders and borrowers.
They bring savers and borrowers together by selling debt instruments or securities and deposits to savers for money and lending that money to borrowers. As a result, the lenders of investors receive claims on investment, which have stable market value and high liquidity.
Financial intermediation does not ensure from direct lending and borrowing process but arises from the lending borrowing proves, which involves the generation and exchange of debt instrument or securities. The point of emphasis therefore is the financial intermediaries use their own liabilities to create additional assets, help mobilize funds, gather together to reap economics of scale and minimize the investors.
The financial markets system features a wide array of banking and non-banking financial intermediaries. The banking sub-sector of the system comprises Commercial and Merchant Banks, Development Bank and Central Bank, as the Apex institution.
The non-bank financial institution sub-sector includes a wide range of organizations operating as regulators, facilitators and investors. The list includes the Securities and Exchange Commission Market in Nigeria, to assess its impacts on Nigeria economy.
In order to achieve its major (SEC), the Stock Exchange, Stockbrokers, Regioners, Insurance companies, Pensions and Provident funds and Investment Companies. The financial market is really segmented into two major markets, which are:
1. Money Market
2. Capital Market
The money market is the market for short-term funds an securities including treasury bills, treasury certificates negotiable certificates of deposits, commercial paper and other funds of less than one year duration on the other hand, the capital market is the market for long-term funds and securities whose tenure extends beyond one year.
These include long-term loans, mortgage, bond, preference share, ordinary shares, federal government bonds and industrial loans. The capital market is a complex institution and mechanism through which intermediate and long run funds are made available to government, business (firm) and individuals.
The capital market therefore is an instrumental arrangement that performs the function of mobilizing private and public savings from surplus spending units and channeling them to the deficit units for the production of goods and services.
Unlike the many money market which primarily exist as a means of liquidity adjustment, the capital market provides a bridge of transforming saving into long term investment by using equity bonds, debentures, mortgages and investment stocks to facilitate inter-mediation.
The market makes it possible for private and public sectors of the economy to rise long-term capital to execute government development programs and from the expansion and modernization of the private business to enhance outputs, employment and income.
The capital market is often described as an important part of country’s economy, which is indispensable to economy growth and development. In short, it is a place where nation’s wealth is bough.
The capital market itself is composed of:
1. Primary Market
2. Secondary Market Operators in the market include Merchant Banks, Stock broking Firms, Issuing Houses, Development Finance Companies, the Central Bank, Securities and Exchange Commission and the Stock Exchange. With this background; this project attempts to review broad outline the extinction of the
Nigerian Capital market, its functions, growth and development with emphasis on the period and challenge for the future especially in the lights of the liberalized trade and exchange regimes adopted under the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The capital market is the long-terms and of the financial market that is made up of market and institution which facilitate the issuance of long term financial instruments. Unlike the more market that provides basically short term funds, the capital market provides funds to industries and government to meet their long term capital requirements such as financial or tried investments building, plant and machinery bridges and so on.
The following are research problem.1. Why is there still low level of foreign investment in the market notwithstanding the reform?2. Is the capital market reform impacting positively on the economy?3. Is there any on the securities of the capital market attributed to the reform?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to evaluate the growth and performance of the capital market in Nigerian to assess its impacts on the Nigerian economy. The following are the objectives of the study.
1. Examine the structures and the roles of the capital markets in Nigerians and the
2. evolution of the market including institutional development market.
3. Examine the instruments used in the market and their used fullness.
4. Examines the future prospect of the Nigerian Capital market.
5. Find out the various problems facing the workings and the operations of the capital market.
6. To evaluate the impact of such reforms on the Nigerian capital market.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the impact of the capital market on the National Income?
ii. What is the effect of the capital market on the share holder investment or in-course?
iii. What is the impact of the capital market on the earning per shares (EPS) of the shareholders?1. What is the effect of the capital market on the effectiveness:
Development of the institutional in the arrangement for long-term financial assets, such as shares, debentures stock and mortgage equity bond.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESES
1. H0 : There is no relationship between Capital market transaction and long term sources of funds.
H1 : There is relationship between Capital market transaction and long term sources of funds.2.
H0 : There is no relationship between investment in capital market and the earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.
H1 : There is relationship between investment in capital market and the earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.
1.6 LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian capital market since its inceptions in 1946. These will include involution and impact of the sector on the growth of Nigeria economy.
Since early 70s and 80s then it because a significant factors in financial system of the economy. The study will further examine its roles during the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) and the impact its plays in the dominance of the country financial base.
1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The importance of the capital market in economic development cannot be over emphasized.
There is consensus of opinion that the nature and the content of the not benefit which the capital market offer country be judged by the effects on the mobilization of savings, capital inflow and out flow the mobility of investible surplus funds, resources allocation, distribution of income and wealth and the response of economic policies.
Therefore, the development of the capital market should encourage efficient mobilization of both domestic and foreign savings for productive investment in order to achieve economic development. Without productive investment, there will be no growth and saving and there will be no investment.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study will make use of secondary data. The date at sources from the various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) such as B. Williams, Economic and financial Review, Annual Report and Statistical Bulletin: Lagos Publication form the Nigerian Sick Exchange (NES), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other Financial Institution.
1.9 PLAN OF STUDY
This study tells us what the evolution functions and impacts of the capital market in Nigeria. Chapter One is the introduction and explains what capital market is all about. Chapter Two is the literature review and it review the work of notable economists.
Chapter Three will be scope of the study and examines evolution, operation and impact or the sectors on the economy. Chapter Four will be methodology and its analysis is based on secondary data from central bank of Nigeria, Nigerian stock exchange commission.
Chapter Five will be the summary recommendation and conclusion giving suggestion and ways to improve the operation on the Nigeria capital markets.
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1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPT
1. Capital market: The market is concerned with the mobilization and intermediation of long term funds.
2. Data Analysis: This refers to the use of data to analysis the project work. This data include in formulation got from official sources.
3. Methodology: This can be described as the method by which this study will be carried out
4. Equity: This is the shareholder’s ownership interest in a company represented by their common and preferred stock
.5. Operators in the Market: They are the players in the stock exchange, this players include the financial intermediaries for statement long term fund form investors and allocating some to institution that required them.
7. Secondary Market: This exists for the sale and purchase of old securities.
8. Primary Market: This market is for new securities. It is platform where a company or government raises funds for investment purposes.
REFERENCESAROWOLE E. A “The Development of Capital Market in Africa with particular reference a Kenya and Nigeria IMF Staff paper (Washington) volume 2 July 1997.NWANKWO G.O: Money and Capital Market in Nigerian Today University of Lagos Press Page 16-135 1991.
CAPITAL MARKET IN NIGERIA, ITS EVOLUTION, FUNCTION AND IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
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