THE LANDSCAPE OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NORTHEAST NIGERIA: AN EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN REHABILITATION AND IDP REINTEGRATION
The issue of internal displacement poses a colossal impediment to the Nigerian state. Although the problem predates independence, it has taken a more alarming dimension with the advent of the Boko Haram Insurgency. Undeniably, Nigeria’s situation has become more precarious to the extent that it houses the third-highest number of IDPs globally.
This thesis contributes to the other part of the research by showing the effectiveness of the role of government in rehabilitation and IDP reintegration. To do this, this research employs a qualitative approach to data collection… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Northeast Nigeria mainly refers to the six states that make up the geopolitical region. The states are Borno, Bauchi, Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe, and Yobe. The north-east shares international borders with Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. Due to low vegetation, growing desertification, and cultural relationships between societies that extend beyond borders, borders are open and porous. Therefore, it is difficult to control movements in and out of the north-eastern states. This is an advantage for the Boko Haram rebels who have difficulty entering and leaving the north-eastern states (Zheri 2017).
According to Nextier (2015), “Boko Haram is one of the most serious challenges facing Nigeria, especially in the northeast. The incidence of Boko Haram ‘s violent attacks on civilians since 2009 is widespread destruction in north-eastern Nigeria, causing a crisis that currently affects more than 14.8 million people in the north-eastern states. More than 2.2 million people have fled their homes, and around 7 million need humanitarian assistance (Nextier 2015).” (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This research aims at exploring the best way of restoring the livelihoods of Yobe State, which has been severely affected by the insurgency of Boko Haram. In addition, the study aims to determine the effectiveness of the strategy of implementing the role of the government in the reintegration of internally displaced persons in North-eastern Nigeria.” The aim in question can achieve the following:
- Assessing the status and management of internally displaced persons in northern Nigerian… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The essence of Rehabilitation and Recovery
According to Corazon (2013), rehabilitation and recovery after a disaster include support strategies aimed at restoring human-focused services and infrastructures, as well as restoring the physical and ecological integrity of the ecosystem concerned. According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2012), rehabilitation and reconstruction after disasters are generally in the domain of governments, civil society organizations, and international donors to focus on the care sector… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The Origin of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria
Boko Haram first appeared in the consciousness of most Westerners in April 2009 (Bajie 2012). But the group been a growing force in Nigeria for more than a decade and has deep roots in the social development of the country which dates back even further. Its rise is not an accident and signals the emergence of a dangerous and militant religious movement that threatens the survival of Nigeria as a nation-state. Its founder, Mohammed Yusuf, was a dedicated fundamentalist whose thinking was heavily influenced by Wahhabi theology. They wanted to turn Nigeria into a truly Islamic state by imposing Islamic law across the country, including taxation in the Christian south.”
In the beginning, Boko Haram was radical, but not yet violent. This changed in 2009 when members of Boko Haram decided that they would refuse to obey all the things required by a law that requires motorcyclists to wear helmets stating that they were somehow not Islamic… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Figure 2.1 Map of Nigeria showing the Geographical Distribution of Boko Haram Attacks
Source: Jaguda (2014), Map Showing Boko-haram attacks and Casualties Since 2009, Accessed from http://jaguda.com/social–issues/map–showing–boko–haram–attacks–casualties–since–2009/ on the 15 January 2018
While the nature of the geographical distribution of Boko- Haram attacks has been widely documented, extremely very few studies (Bagu and Yau, 2017) have actually attempted to explore the factors accounting for the variation of Boko-haram attacks across the states in the northern part of Nigeria.
In an attempt to explain the case of Jigawa state, for example, Machina (2017) notes that community resilience played a major role in the insulation of the state against the Boko-Haram insurgency. He argues that several factors including social capital worked to fortify Jigawa’s state against the insurgents… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Conflict and Conflict Management In Africa
In Rwanda, according to Lemarchard (1990), the conflict which was characterized by claims of political supremacy between Hutu and Tutsi claimed over 800, 000 lives in 1972. This led to the mass movement of displaced persons to Tanzania. In the host communities, this resulted in environmental degradation, diminishing food security, depreciation of the infrastructure, and pressure on the social and health sectors of the host country.
This also involved social and economic adjustment on the part of the IDPs (Adisa 1996). Adisa further maintained that the adjustment took the form of acceptance of food provided and not food wanted and restriction of movement. According to Nnoli (1998), conflict promotes inter-group competitions for resources; this further promotes ethnic politics in which ethnic groups look for access to state power… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The Relocation of Victims Persons
The United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (1980:4) defined a victim as:
“A person who individually or collectively suffers harm including mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairments of fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within the nation-state”.”
A victim is a person who must have suffered a personal injury, loss of dear ones or property as a result of a crime or other disasters. Once victimized, individuals are forced to adjust in order to meet the new challenges such as the need for foods, clothes, shelter, and other necessities of life. Therefore, the first problem of displaced victims is relocation. Once displaced, the person is faced with the problem of where to go and resettle since he is not safe in his own land… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The IDP Camps
According to Egwu, (2011), the actual total extent of displacement in Nigeria is unknown as there is limited state capacity to collect data and the complex nature of displacement models and there are no mechanisms to monitor lasting solutions. Available estimates include only people who have sought refuge in temporary camps for internally displaced persons; Considering that, according to reports, most of the internally displaced people preferred to seek refuge with family members rather than live in the camps (Nigerian voice 2015).” (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Figure 1: Internally displaced person camp at Bukuru-Zang Secondary Commercial School
Analyzing the effect of the terrorist-induced catastrophe, the OECD (2012) believed that across the country, both household and business confidence would be severely shaken and confidence in the government’s ability to protect the country would erode… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Approach to Management of IDPs
It is necessary to reconsider the concept of intervention and to broaden its definition beyond the field of military action. According to Zheri (2017), the options are many: the intervention can be physical, spiritual, bilateral, multilateral, direct action, transfer of skills, institutional development. We must recognize that those who manage chaos have the potential to manage a full-service bank. Furthermore, the recognition that NGOs are important players in this broad menu of intervention strategies is at the heart of the discussion about their role as conflict managers.
During the conference, many participants stressed that in crisis situations that occur almost daily throughout the world, there is a close relationship between NGOs, governments, and international organizations. Phyllis Oakley, Undersecretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Immigration, said that in these crises the United States government and NGOs depend on each other to fulfill their functions… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Forced Migration Theory
The theory of migration forced attempts to explain the massive increase in involuntary movements of people in the period after the war and describes the harsh conditions in which these people try to live. The failure of this theory is that the theory cannot include government liability is mandatory to limit the excesses of forced migration, neither internally nor externally. However, in the context of this study, forced migration theory explains the involuntary movement of internally displaced persons and explains the vulnerabilities of these people within their countries.
The theory of forced migration dates back to the founding of the League of Nations and the High Commissioner for Refugees in 1921 in response to the massive displacement caused by the Russian revolution in 1917 and the repression of Jews by the Nazis in 1921… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This research aims to find out the role of the government in the reintegration of internally displaced persons as it uniquely concerns Northern Nigeria, and to achieve this. The qualitative research seems most appropriate.
The Qualitative research design is suitable for discovering the experiences of people (Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004) and because this research relies on the experiences and narrations of the IDPs who are resident in the selected IDP camps and other actors situated in the region. In addition, Bryman (2012) carefully highlights the features of this methodological approach that makes it the most appropriate approach for a study such as this… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- The Case Study research design
Crowe et al., (2011) explains that the case study is useful ‘when there is a need to obtain an in-depth appreciation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in its natural, real-life context.’ Food insecurity is a global phenomenon, which is affecting different countries in different contexts. This is a unique context, which is self-inflicted and unnatural unlike other cases of food insecurity. It is unnatural in the sense that it is a result of bad government policies, negligence, and oil exploration activities… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Area of the Study
The targeted area of this study is the north-eastern states in Nigeria which are affected by the Boko Haram crisis. Specifically, the study beams its searchlight on Yobe State, Nigeria. The IDP camps in Yobe state are in the town of Buni Yadi at 11°16′08″N 11°55′49″E towards the south of the area; another camp is in the town of Gujba which lies in the north of the area. It has an area of 3,239 km2 (1,251 sq mi) and a population of 130,088 at the 2016 census. The postal code of the area is 621… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The previous studies disclose that internal displacement had already been a headliner in Nigeria. With decades of tumultuous experience, it is expected that the nation would have become a maven in handling the challenge of internal displacement. However, the reverse appeared to be the case. Indeed, the driven design of a comprehensive plan to cater to the needs of IDPs in Nigeria was set in motion in 2012 (National IDP Policy, 2012)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The Management and Status of IDPs
In northeast Nigeria, the number of internally displaced persons increased due to Boko Haram activities. In these states, there are camps for internally displaced persons which are fewer internally displaced persons. However, the camps opened when Boko Haram expanded bloodshed to these areas. The prevalence of the internally displaced in the states is then captured, indicating the number of individuals and families along with the average household size of the internally displaced population in the six states
Table 1: Population burden of internally displaced persons in Adamawa, Yobe and Borno states
Source: National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)
Table 2: Internally displaced people displaced by the Boko Haram insurgency in six states
Source: IOM – IOM, Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), Round Two Report, retrieved from http://nigeria.iom.int/dtm
From the above information, it is evident that IDPs are the predominant in the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa. Likewise, the distribution of families affected by Boko Haram, although the natural size of the family in each state is marginal… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This research attempt to evaluate the prospects for the Boko Haram uprising in north-eastern Nigeria while examining the government’s role in the rehabilitation and reintegration of internally displaced persons. The study reveals that the Yobe state government in collaboration with national and international donors from the federal government plays an important role in the reconciliation, reintegration, and rehabilitation of victims of the Boko Haram uprising in the local government area of Gujba by providing help and building materials such as concrete roofing sheets, etc… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the local government area of Gujba, in Yobe state, who are victims of the Boko Haram uprising in the northeast, were receiving more relief material from national and international donor agencies in Yobe state. Support for victims (VSF) has started the reconstruction of houses destroyed by Boko Haram in Yobe state.
Some of the recommendations provided for a better reconstruction strategy are as follows:
(a) The federal government should rationalize the replying agencies, of which you are identified in this document. A multiplicity of agencies leads to conflicting responses, political statements, and inefficiencies… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)