Assessment Of The Status, Challenges And Prospects Of Campus Radio In Nigeria
Table of Content
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – v
Abstract` – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of contents – – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Objective of the Study `- – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Question – – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of Study – – – – – – 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.9 Conceptual and operational definition of terms – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
2.1.1 Definition of Community Radio – – – – – – 9
2.1.2 Community radio in the context of the globalization of media – – 12
2.1.3 Community radio in Africa – – – — – – 12
2.1.4 Community radio models – – – – – – – 14
2.1.5 Function of a community radio – – – – – – 15
2.1.6 Campus radio – – – – – – – – 17
2.1.7 Affiliation to the department of communication – – – – 19
2.1.7 Community (Campus) broadcast services in Nigeria – – – 19
2.2 Empirical Review – – – – – – – – 23
2.3 Theoretical Review – – – – – – – – 31
2.3.1 Libertarian Press Theory – – – – – – – 31
2.3.2 Democratic participation media theory – – – – – 32
2.3.3. Communication system theory – – – – – – 33
2.3.4 Development Media theory – – – – – – 34
2.3.5 The uses and gratification theory – – – – – – 35
2.3.6 Social responsibility press theory – – – – – – 37
2.4 Theoretical framework – – – – – – – 38
2.4.1 Democratic participant media theory – – – – – 39
2.4.2 Major assumptions of the theory include: – – – – – 40
2.4.3 The Link between the theories and the study – – – – 41
2.4.5 Summary of literature – – – – – – – 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design – – – – – – 43
3.2 Area of study – – – – – – – – 43
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – – 44
3.4 Sample size – – – – – – – 44
3.5 Sample technique – – – – – – – 45
3.6 Instrument of data collection – – – – – – 47
3.7 Validity of the instrument – – – – – – 47
3.8 Reliability of instrument – – – – – – 47
3.9 Method of administering instrument – – – – – 48
3.10 Method of data analysis – – – – – – 49
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Analysis of bio-data – – – – – – – 51
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 63
4.3 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – – 66
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – – 68
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 71
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 72
5.4 Suggestions for further studies – – – – – 74
References – – – – – – – – 75
Appendices – – – – – – – – 77
This study is an assessment of the status, challenges and prospects of campus radio in Nigeria: A study of IMSU star fm and PolyNek fm radio stations. The study sought to ascertain the current status of campus radio in the selected institutions, identify the challenges faced by IMSU star fm and Polynek fm in their bid to run an effective campus radio station, examine the prospects of IMSU star fm and Polynek fm, and find out the role of campus radio in the selected institutions.
The study was grounded on the democratic participant media theory and the development media theory, the survey research method was employed with a population of 33,000, but I derived a representative sample size of 380 through the aid of Wimmer and Dominick online calculator.
The study adopted multi-stage cluster sampling technique with questionnaire and interview as the instrument of data collection, alongside the research objectives, I found that: the stations operate for 10 hours daily, operate a participatory broadcast station and serves as a training center for students in the institutions who wish to venture into radio broadcast profession in future. Inadequate fund and stale news broadcast is a challenge to campus radio stations.
The duration of programme(s) on IMSU star from and Polynek fm are good and that the campus radio adds significant value to the lives of its listeners. Finally the two radio stations plays no role in highlighting the plight of the community, in broadcasting programmes related to the course of study in the institution and in serving as a tool for two-way flow of information in the institution,
finally the study recommended that the society must understand the rules and regulations guiding the establishment and operation of a community radio station before seeking for license from relevant authorities to establish a radio station. A significant proportion of the campus community radio programme and input must be from the community in order for the station to start broadcasting to the community’s needs.
1.1 Background of the study
Broadcasting has had outstanding position particularly with reference to informal teaching because of its wide and vast range of viewers and listeners. It is seen as potential solution to the problems, inadequacies and certain ills of education (Tankard & Verner, 2005).
The evidence of the growing “digital divide” and reports of inadequate infrastructure and teaching/learning facilities in developing countries prompt educators to take a fresh look at radio, especially, as a medium to provide outreach and access to as many people as possible. To this end, community radio has been recognized as a particularly successful low cost medium for education Reddi (2003).
According to Bosch (2007), in the absence of other forms of media such as television and newspapers, radio has proven to be a powerful and vital means of entertainment and communication that guarantees community involvement in the communication process.
Further researchers show that radio is renowned for providing communities with up-to-date local and international information in their own languages accompanied by various music genres that are compatible with diverse cultural inclinations (Mmusi, 2002, p. 3, National Community Radio Forum, 1993, p. 10).
Baran 2003 opines that what makes radio particularly appealing is it’s interactivity, it’s capacity to provoke dialogue and solicit the participation of local populations.
Reddi (2003), and Vyas (2002) opines that some of the major educational radio projects includes the “university broadcast project” which is aimed at expanding higher education as widely as possible among the different strata of society.
Fantex (2012, p. 1) state that “campus radio stations are recognized for their longstanding commitment to community-based radio programming and their showcasing of innovative and diverse musical genres and styles”.
He also added that campus radio stations represent an important component of the mediascape available to people and are often framed as being “alternative”, “independent” and “having a responsibility to the community”.
Community radio has been defined as radio broadcasting situated within the sphere of community media. According to Fulher (2007, p. 224-226) community media may be defined as those media which members of the community have access for information, education, and entertainment when they ant and community participates as planners, producers, and performers, supplementing the mainstream media on both organization and content levels.
“Participation is the engine of democracy and community radio is a tool for participation”. Jordan (2006, p.1). According to Fraser & Estrada (2001, p. 4). It’s specific focus is to make it audience the main protagonists, by their involvement in all aspects of its management and programme production and providing them with a programming that will help in the development and social advancement of their community.
Even though Nigeria has opened up its air-waves and allowed for independent commercial and community radio stations, there are legal and political loopholes for community radio stations. However, this exception can be addressed with clearly defined three-tier broadcasting system, namely public, commercial and community.
In addition, there has been tremendous de facto political support for the establishment of rural radio stations, and other forms of community radio. This may have a positive impact on the socio-economic and educational development of there lost community as well as receiving communities surrounding the stations but there is the air of fear of the stations being used by politicians to promote acrimony limiting the licenses of university and other educational campus in the country.
Community ratio stations plays vital role in building vibrant communities, in mobilizing people to action by informing and empowering citizens, in giving voice to the marginalized groups of society, and in bringing community needs to the attention of local and national governments. The scope of the actual and potentials impact of community radio is wide-ranging, as are the challenges associated with community radio development.
This, there is need for raising awareness among communication policy makers on the role and benefit of campus community radio stations to Nigeria socio-cultural, economic, educational and technological development, as well as in the host/receiving communities, and monitoring to ensure the radio station delivers as it should.
This research hopes to evaluate the affairs of the IMSU Campus Star fm and Nekede Fedponeke Fm with the hope it will draw the attention of the authorities to its challenges and be useful in soliciting for the necessary assistance the radio station requires to function effectively and efficiently.
1.2 Statement of the problem
According to Onabajo (2002), the emergence of state broadcasting stations has brought radio and television signals near to the various communities with little or no change in their psyche. He attributes this to deficient programming which seeks to urbanize the rural population rather than develop the ruralites in their own environment context.
Therefore this study is set out to examine campus radio in its environmental context. Are students eager to tune into the campus radio to be informed on happenstances around them? Are lecturer glued to the campus radio frequency to ascertain what their students have to say about them? Are the campus community members enlightened, educated, entertained, developed or developing through the existence of campus radio in their community.
If the aforementioned is not obtainable in institutions with campus radio, , then certainly, there are clogs in the wheel hindering the successful operations of campus radio. Could it be inadequate found to run the station? Or perhaps the campus radio station are yet to know their role in the campus community.
Do they focus on campus issues or global issues? Are the campus community members carried along in the campus radio programming, packaging and production? Could it be that there are no capable hands to manage the station? Or are they practicing professionalized journalism instead of participatory journalism.
Assuming these or more, are the problems campus radio is facing, then there is need for a research to be carried out so that producers director etc in campus radio stations will know how to go about achieving or actualizing utility through campus radio station.
Hence, the need and reason I am assessing the current status, the problematic challenges and future prospects of campus radio in Nigeria, narrowing it down to IMSU star Fm and Polynek Fm Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main purpose of this study is to assess the status, challenges and prospects of campus radio in Nigeria.
Specifically, the objectives of this study was to:
- Ascertain the current status of campus radio in the selected institutions.
- Identify the challenges faced by IMSU star Fm and Polynek Fm in their bid to run an effective campus radio station.
iii. Examine the prospects of IMSU star Fm and Polynek Fm.
- Find out the role of campus radio in the selected universities.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions guided this study:
- what is the current status of campus radio in the selected institutions.
- What are the challenges faced by IMSU star Fm and Polynek Fm in their bid to run an effective campus radio station?
iii. What are the prospects of Imsu star FM and Polynek FM.
- What are the role of campus radio in the selected universities.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Hi. Campus radio stations play significant role in Imsu and Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will provide reliable contributions for theory, practice, and research.
Theoretically, the findings are expected to support previous theories and premises in the area of community radio. Even though the findings of this study are expected to be affected by individual perception and cultural differences as obtainable in a multi-cultural environment.
Practically, it is therefore expected that broadcasting policy makers, radio producers especially community radio base will see this study as an expose of how they can affect the lives of the rural people positively through their programming and its content.
In research, the study will help in providing materials for scholarly consultation in areas of campus radio and other related aspects.
1.7 Scope / Delimitation of study
In respect to the subject matter, this study will focused on the status, prospects and challenges of campus radio stations with star Fm and Polynek Fm in focus. This is because IMSU and Nekede has a campus radio station respectively.
Geographically, the study was be delimited to every member of Imo State University, Owerri and Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri community. This is because they are knowledgeable about the operations of these campus radio.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, these constrains pose a lot of limitations of this work.
- Financial constraints posed serious challenge to this study.
- Duration for the work is relatively short.
- Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
- Non-challant attitude of people towards providing accurate information especially in area of population size because they believe they are too vital for student researcher.
- There is also limitation of time due to academic pursuit.
1.9 Conceptual and Operational Definition of Terms
This section situates the following terms with the context of the study, and this provides the necessary framework within which to understand their meaning in the work.
Radio Station: A broadcast house where mostly audio content and programming are produced and transmitted over broadcast spectrum or frequency.
Campus: A premise of learning of an academic institution, especially for tertiary education.
Campus Radio: A radio station situated at the premises of an academic institution, and has been assigned an FM frequency by the National communication Authority to operate as a non-commercial radio station in a tertiary educational institution.
Status: The current operational disposition of campus radio
Prospect: The possibilities and capacity to operate a successful campus radio broadcast in the universities.
Challenges: The limitations and inhibition that threatens the survival of effective campus radio broadcast in Nigeria.
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