Project Materials

GENERAL

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GARLIC AND GINGER EXTRACTS

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CHAPTER ONE

Anti microbial substances are materials that have activity against bacteria. There are many plant materials that show anti-microbial activity against bacteria. Example includes garlic and ginger. Garlic and ginger are odourferous plants belonging to a plant family lilacace, with their botanical name Alliums Sativum and Zingiber Officinale respectively. They are grown in northern Nigeria as medicine for both human and animals. They are primarily used for seasoning and also for its medicinal property (oda, 1979).

The medicinal potency of garlic and ginger are due to their sulphuric content believed to be responsible for their medicinal property (Blocll et al, ). Garlic contains a glycoside, vitamin B, C, and D allisatin II and I. It also contains volatile sulphur oil, which has a vermifugal action (i.e. chemical agent that expels worm).

Anti microbial substance show major and minor similarities and difficult to distinguish except through the use of sensitivity techniques that will show clearly those slightest differences among those substances. Anti microbial activities of garlic and ginger could be assayed using the following microorganisms: Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. This microorganism reacts to the slightest change in their environment, they tend to multiply rapidly in a favourable environment but decline if the environment becomes unfavourable.

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive organism, spherical in shapes, oxidize negatively and catalase positive, a non-sporing bacterium that usually occurs in clumps like grape cluster (LAN, 1986) 

1.2     MENT OF

Cases of fake drugs abound everywhere in our country today especially in the use of antibiotic. The result has been an increasing level of drug resistance among microorganisms, which were abinitio susceptible to particular antibiotics. Most of these antibiotics have one or more action ingredients, which means that it is easy for microorganism to recognize and destroy or metabolize such active ingredients. However, there are many materials of plant origin that show anti-microbial activity. These materials provide some hope for antibiotic resistance because most of them have many chemical broad sites, which means that it is not easy for microorganism to develop resistance to it easily.

1.3     M AND OBJECTIVES OF THE

The aim of this work is to study the anti microbial activities of garlic and ginger extract.

The specific objectives of this work are:

1.         Measuring of degree of sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus to garlic and ginger extracts respectively.

2.       Garlic and ginger extracts mixed together.

1.4     WORKING HYPOTHESIS

Ho         Ginger and garlic extracts show anti microbial activity against staphylococcus aureus.

H1           Ginger and garlic extracts do not show anti microbial activity on staphylococcus aureus.

H2           Garlic and ginger extracts mixed show enhanced anti microbial activity against staphylococcus aureus.

1.5           LIMITATIONS OF THE

This project work will be limited only to anti microbial activity of garlic and ginger extracts against staphylococcus aureus. Respectively, garlic and ginger extracts mixed.

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