- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Infrastructure refers to “the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function” (Frank 2003).
Infrastructures can be described generally as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development. It is an important term for judging a country, region or state’s and individual’s developments/status. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical national grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions” (Fulmer, 2009).
It embodies all facilities and services provided to support structural development in urban areas which enhances human settlement. The issue of infrastructure development has beena serious concern to urban growth in Nigeria. Urban infrastructure is developed by public or private institution to enhance proper functioning of an urban centerand managed by public agencies with the intention to achieve common social and economic objectives. Despite the efforts by the various tiers of government in this direction, the demand of urban population has not been met. This inadequacy has affected the pace of physical and economic development in the city (Udoudoh, 2010), and according to (Anofojie, Adeleye and Kadiri 2014), the provision of adequate infrastructure such as good roads, electricity, water, telecommunication, sewage, and drainage are basic requirement that determine the socio-economic wellbeing of an area.With the fasturbanization of many Nigerian cities and parts of other developing countries, good urban infrastructure quality has gradually becomevery important. However, one of the persistent problems facing Nigerian cities in the past decades is the inadequacy of urban infrastructure, as well as management of existing ones (Ogu, 2005).
Urbanization is primarily a result of migration from rural areas as urban areas provide higher productive job opportunities as compared to agriculture. The process facilitates full realization of economic potential of the country. To facilitate this, urban areas need to be ready with physical infrastructure, jobs, and livelihoods. Social and urban infrastructure leads to overall development of the state economy. Requirement is not only to have physical infrastructure, but also to have acceptable quality of services which is an important component of stakeholder management. Nigerian urban areas are deficient in quality of services and need to be effectively managed to sustain and be ready for sustaining the economic productivity. To ensure the contribution of cities to economic growth, Ministry of Urban Development had set out service norms in 2008 (HPEC, 2011). Eight major urban infrastructure sectors are water supply, sewerage, solid waste management, storm water drains, urban roads, urban transport, traffic support infrastructure and street lighting. Apart from creating new physical infrastructure, focus also needs to be on reforming governance for improvement in delivering services and operations and maintenance of existing infrastructure
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
World economic forum (WEF) 2016-2017 global competitivenessindex ranked Nigeria’sinfrastructure low (132 out of 138 countries), and the poor infrastructure was identified in its2016 Executive opinionsurvey, as one of the biggest constraints on doing business in Nigeria.Infrastructure is the central to sustainable development and economic competitiveness of any Nation, a nation without infrastructure is like a body without anatomy.
Today inadequate infrastructure is holding back Africa’s economic growth per capita by two percent each year and reducing firm’s productivity by as much as 40 percent (ICA 2010).
Nigeria as a country still faces problems with providing basic infrastructure such as poor roads, inadequate supply of electricity, poor proper waste disposal system, poor security, bad drainage system, inadequate source of water supply. Despite the abundance of resources that can be invested in to generate funds to provide and construct urban infrastructure to meet the needs of the society.
Demand for infrastructure is growing at an unusual rate due to rapid increase in population, the ability of infrastructure to accommodate growth depends on the ability of the urban area to maintain and improve the condition of existing infrastructure. However, the main concern in this study is to assess urban infrastructure quality and management in the inner neighborhoods of minna, Niger state.
1.3 JUSIFICATION OF STUDY
Olufemi AdedamolaOyedele (2016) carried out a study on the sustainable development of infrastructure in FCT, Abuja. He observed that Social and economic infrastructures are the pillars of socio-economic development of any city/nation. Infrastructures are the structures upon which the operation of a society hinges on and that the challenges of infrastructure development include finance, technology for development, maintenance and design. The challenges also include international requirements of project to be sustainably developed.
John Udoidem (2017) also researched on the Urban Infrastructure Provision in Nigeria: A Critique of the Funding Strategy, he opined that Urban infrastructure includes physical structures and facilities that are developed or services provided by thepublic or private institutions to enhance the efficient functioning of an urban center. In Nigeria, urban infrastructure islargely financed, owned and managed by government at the various tiers through established public agencies. The research was aimed at critically examining the funding strategy of urban infrastructure provision in Nigeria.The research concluded that the Nigerian government hasbeen guilty of neglecting or under-funding infrastructure development due to either poorbudgeting, estimation ofacquisition, maintenance cost or sheer mismanagement of funds allocated for such projects.
Furthermore, R. A. Ogunbajo, Bello and Adebayo, (2016) conducted a research on the Urban Infrastructure Quality and User Satisfaction in Low Income Residential Neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria.Neighborhoods were selected for the study, and a total of 250 housing units were sampled.Questionnaire was administered on households that fell within the sample and used to retrieverelevant data. Low satisfaction index was observed on the quality of infrastructure within the neighborhood studied.
Despite all these researches, none was able to identify the available infrastructures in the study area, norsuggested the strategic management and maintenance process/approach to adopt in order to tackle some of thefactors leading to poor quality infrastructure and how this infrastructure negatively affect the neighborhood of the study area in question for this research. Thus, this is the gap which this research seeks to fill.
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim of this research is to assess the urban infrastructure quality and management in the inner neighborhoods of Minna, Niger state.
The objectives are study:
- To identify the available infrastructure sustaining the inner Neighborhoods in Minna
- To assess the quality of urban infrastructure across inner Neighborhoods in Minna
- To examine the management strategies adopted for the urban infrastructure in the inner Neighborhoods
- To assess the user satisfaction level of the urban infrastructure available.
- To review the funding policy of urban infrastructure provision in Nigeria
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the available infrastructure sustaining the inner Neighborhoods of Minna?
- What are the quality of the infrastructure in the inner Neighborhoods of Minna?
- What are the management strategies adopted for urban infrastructure in the inner Neighborhoods of Minna?
- What is the level of user satisfaction of the available infrastructure?
- What are the funding policies of urban infrastructure provision in Nigeria?
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is based on assessment of urban infrastructure quality and management in the inner neighborhoods of minna, Niger state using mobile as case study. It will critically study the management of basic urban infrastructure, quality of the basic urban infrastructure, and the condition of the urban infrastructure.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
This study will provide information on the quality of basic urban infrastructure in the inner neighborhoods of minna.
This study will provide information on the condition of the available urban infrastructure.
This study will provide information on the maintenance and management of the available infrastructure.
1.9 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
1.9.1 GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION
Minna, Nigeria is located on the geographical map at latitude 9º62” north and longitude 6º55” east, it is 243m above sea level. Minna, Niger state is located in the North central zone of the country and area of about 884 hectares, Minna is about 150km from Abuja, 139km from Kaduna, 252km from Ilorin.
1.9.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Minna is the capital of Niger state, and was formed in 2016 when the North-Western state then was divided into two Sokoto state and Niger state, Niger state has the largest mass land area in the county and Minna is the biggest city in the country. It was said that settlement in Minna dates back to about 47,000 years ago, Minna consist of two major ethnic groups which are the Gbagyi and the Nupe, there are also other tribe settled in Minna. The citizens of Minna are mainly Muslims and Christians, the population of Minna increased from 59,989 in 1963 to 304,113 in 2007.
1.9.3 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
Niger state is made up of 25 Local Government Areas which are divided into 25 wards, Niger state is administered through three tiers of Government; the State, Local and Emirate councils and three arms of government; the executive government is headed by the state Governor and is assisted by the Deputy Government, Chief of Staff, Special Adviser, Head of Service, Secretary to the State Government and the Commissioners of various Ministries. The legislative government represented by House of Assembly, headed by the Speaker of the House and Deputy Speaker, thirdly is the Judiciary, which is the independent arm of Government headed by the Chief Judge of the State. Minna as the capital of Niger State is also under the administrative structure of Niger State.
1.9.4 ECONOMIC BASE
Minna as a city is mainly involved in agriculture because it has the most fertile agricultural land in the country, framing is the major occupation of the people of Minna, the citizens are also involved in crafts work and art such as dyed cotton cloth, pottery, leather works, block making and mental works, while others others are into white collar job. Minna was formally just known as the railway town that host people of different walks of life but now it is the Nation’s power state that experience change due to the union of people from different socio-cultural background immensely influenced its growth and development. Government has visions of transforming Minna and are putting in a lot of effort into making Minna being among the three top state capital in the country. The vision has already commenced with the modernization and expansion of roads, installation of solar powered street lights and traffic lights for easy flow of traffic and to reduce accidents, establishment of public, private, and federal schools, conference centers has been built to attract international, nation, regional conferences, seminars and trainings to take place in minna.Provision for these infrastructure and service will attract local and international investors that will help grow the city of Minna.
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