AN ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE TO INTEGRATING USER FACILITIES IN THE PROPOSED REDEVELOPMENT OF JOS RAILWAY TERMINUS IBRAHIM
Internationally, railway stations have changed in their functions from transit point for passengers and goods leading to the introduction of new facilities in their design. However, in Nigeria, station buildings which have the attribute of passenger station have been unable to function as civil buildings providing other facilities independent of the railway system during the period of declination. The study aimed at integrating contemporary user facilities that would enhance passenger’s patronage with the objective of ascertaining the contemporary user facilities that can be incorporated in the design of Jos railway station to increase it is functionality capturing the modern trend of design. Contemporary user facilities were explored through extensive literature review to arrive at some set of variables which were then studied in three cases of passenger railway stations in Nigeria. The cases were purposefully selected and the study was conducted using multiple instruments of data collection. Survey research method was employed as the main research method in carrying out the research and questionnaires were administered. A total of 280 questionnaires were administered on passengers and staff, out of which 202 (72.1%) were returned/retrieved. Structured interview, and physical observation were used as well. The major findings are that: i) there is absence of integration of public transport modes to the station buildings; ii) Commercial facilities were not incorporated in two of the stations studied; iii) Good-quality waiting space and modern shopping or retail, pertinent to passengers’ need is largely absent; iv) number of 4 foreigners representing (5.6%) patronising the three station is very low; v) Lack of temporary accommodation to accommodate late arrival passenger in two of the station; vi) about 53 respondents representing 77.8% chooses public mode of transport (taxi, keke napep and motor cycle) as their mode of transport to the station which suggest that intermodal facilities should be integrated in the proposed remodelling; vii) 95% respondents prefer restaurant having the highest scores and viii) Results also show that respondent representing 0.782 R.I.I value agree more on improving local area integration, while respondents representing 0.748 R.I.I value agree more with improving the site planning and respondents, representing 0.745 R.I.I value agree more on enhances landscape and spatial integration. Finally, some of the recommendations made include; a research framework based on contemporary user requirements to guide the architects and researchers in proposing new design and redevelopment of old railway stations in urban centres in Nigeria with the goal of enabling such stations function more as civic buildings.
The introductory section gives a picture of the incitements for this thesis. In this section, a brief introduction is given, problem statement, aim and objectives of the study, research questions, justification of the study, scope of the study as well as the significance of this master thesis. The final section will present the structure of thesis.
1.1 Background to the Study
Railway stations are points of transport interchange where the departure and arrival activities take place (Edwans, 1997). It is also defined by a “point” (building structure) of interchange of passengers an d goods, where passengers can get on and off trains and/or goods maybe loaded or unloaded (Kido, 2013). In essence, the station is a space between a particular place and the trains Ademiluyi (2006).
“For a long time people erroneously believed that railway stations would become a point of attraction for the inhabitants of a city. On the contrary, today it has been ascertained that people prefer to keep at a distance from such noisy centres. Generally, the hotels closer to a station do not do good business”.
These words, written by perdonnet in 1865, point out the poor relationship that existed in those years between cities and their railway station.
In the 19th century, railway station was not integrated to the city; this could be perceived by its location, outside the old walls in Germany, as sort of appendix. At the time, the station building itself was an anomaly: The railway station, half factory and half building, represented a novelty in the history of architecture (Bukar, 2010). Bukar (2010), further revealed that no other type of single construction joined two bodies so heterogeneous in their form, with a brickwork building destined to passengers and large glass and iron sheds for the parking of trains in Britain.
Bukar (2010), opined that the expansion and consolidation of railway innovation and social changes led to a gradual incorporation of station into urban framework, where they look on an important role as access gateway to the city. Nowadays many cities are witnessing a renewal of their railway transportation system, accompanied by substantial operations of urban transformation: not simple adaptations of the stations to the new technologies, but rather real changes in the functions of the entire neighbourhood in the vicinity of railway buildings.
The role of railway stations has significantly changed overtime amounting to a numerous new approaches to modern passenger railway stations design, making them more popular, than they were years ago (Edwards, 1997; Lami, 2007; Kido, 2010).
Noticeable a good relationship between stations and their communities encourages the commercial approaches and economic growth; these will bring together transportation facilities, commercial developments, local activities that allow the congregation of all classes of people (Kumar, 2015).
However, in Nigeria, station buildings which have the attribute of passenger station
have displayed redundancy attributes –being unabletofunctionas a civicbuilding providing other services independent of the railway systemduringtheperiod of decline(Olawale, 1999;Adesanya, 2010inKandee,2010).This
redundancy attribute is unexpected since these stations were designed to incorporate facilities that can function independent of the railway sector. This is a major issue facing passenger railway station in the Nigeria.
As so many researchers hghlighted some of the issue facing passenger railway stations the Nigeria was the fact that the railway station, was one of the first infrastructures put into place by the colonial government to facilitate in the exploitation of agriculture and 2 mineral resources (Greene, Reyes, & Castro, 2012). It was designed to meet the objectives of the colonial administration: the movement of freight from inland to costa land and the connection of colonial administrative centres (Adesanya, 2010).
It is therefore ironical to note that in Nigeria the railway industry has virtually collapsed and the programme for revitalising it seems like possible with the new government in position to restore the railway sector into function. As points out some commonly identified urban transport problems in Nigerian cities such as the Jos city are long waiting times for buses, traffic congestion, parking difficulties, air pollution, and traffic accidents (Asiyanbola, 2007; Aderamo, 2010; Ashiedu, 2011).
Greene, Reyes, and Castro, (2012) further asserts that the railway station is moving toward the development of providing high-speed convenient service for the passengers. It handles a Multi-transport system and various service functions in an integrated building. This type of railway station is a new urban space; it has become one of the important features of the contemporary city. Further, train stations are also shopping malls, meeting places and urban landmark.
1.2 Problem Statement
Internationally, railway stations have changed in their functions from transit point for passengers and goods leading to introduction of new facilities in their design (Kandee, 2010). Nowadays railway stations are undergoing redevelopments in order to become transportation hubs where different means of transport are located. They are very often situated in the city centres. Continuous pedestrian circulation and good access to the stations create a possibility and necessary to accommodate new spaces of consumption and leisure such as commercial facilities, shopping mall, inter-modal facilities (Kandee, 2010).
The railway station now handles multi-transport system and various service functions in an integrated building. This type of railway station is a new urban space; it has become one of the important features of the contemporary city. Further, train stations are also shopping malls, meeting places and urban landmark (Greene, Reyes, and Castro, 2012).
Good quality waiting space and modern shopping or retail related to passenger’s needs is largely absent in most of the Nigerian Railway Station (Adesanya, 2010). Most of the Stations in Nigeria have not been built with any architectural or aesthetic consideration and as a result act as a poor introduction to the cities they serve. Thus, this research intends to introduce this contemporary user facilities into the proposed redevelopment of the Jos Terminus Station as well as ensuring good quality waiting spaces, intermodal facilities, temporary accommodation, modern shopping facilities related to passenger’s need.
1.3 Aim of the study
This dissertation aims at integrating contemporary user facilities in the Redevelopment of Jos railway station.
1.4 Objectives of the study
To understand the concept of user facilities to see which facilities have change from literature.To develop a framework from literature and case studies on contemporary user facilities and functional features in Railway Station design. To understand which contemporary user facilities features can be incorporated in the design of similar Railway Station from case studies.To understand which Architectural features addresses these contemporary User facilities.
1.5 Research questions
Which User Facilities have changes from the literature?Which frame work can be develop from the literature and case studies on contemporary user facilities?Which contemporary User facilities can be incorporated in the design of Jos Railway Station to increase its functionality? Which Architectural features address contemporary User facilities in Railway Station design in the study area?
The rise in advancements in railway innovation, ongoing development of increasing road traffic, growing car ownership, individual mode choices, increased concern for the environment, and the need for a cheap and reliable source of mass transportation of people and goods, the railways have once again come alive as a transport mode of choice (Greene, Reyes, and Castro, 2012).
The federal government has graciously granted approval for the remodelling and redevelopment of major railway stations to incorporate modern commercial outlets under Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement.
The process for the engagement of the Private Sector Partners will soon commence. The railway stations to be remodelled and redeveloped are: Iddo Terminal Station, Lagos, Ebute Metta junction Station Lagos, Ilorin Station, Kaduna Junction Station, Kano Station, Port Harcourt Station, Enugu Station, Jos Station, and Gombe Station (Umar, 2013).
The research focuses on redevelopment of Jos existing train station from an Architectural point of view. The work also is concentrated on the redevelopment of the terminal building and other included supporting facilities. It is limited to the immediate station environment and does not include a redevelopment proposal for the areas around the Railway Station.
1.8 Significance of the study
The Terminus Station will provide jobs and improve people’s quality of life, enhance the natural environment and help to reduce carbon footprint. This is a vision that must be embraced for the sake of future generations. Station will present the image of quality and sophistication in Railway Architecture and to this end the design facilities will support and encourage patronage and constant use.
1.9 Structure of the Study
The research work is structured into seven chapters as presented in Figure 1 below Chapter one – The present chapter introduces the context of the study or the background of the study, statement of the problem, the research objectives, research questions, justification, scope and organization of the study.
Chapter two – Focuses on a review of relevant prior literature in the field of contemporary User facilities in Railway Terminus design.
Chapter three – Describes the research design, the population and sample of the study as well as the data collection techniques.
Chapter four – In this chapter the data collected was analysed and discussed.
Chapter five – This chapter was discussed under three headings, namely: summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
AN ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE TO INTEGRATING USER FACILITIES IN THE PROPOSED REDEVELOPMENT OF JOS RAILWAY TERMINUS IBRAHIM
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