A CRITICALLY INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF PAY SATISFACTION ON TEACHERS COMMITMENT IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was carried out because there is a specific need to know the effects of the availability of laboratory and science equipment on student performance in the West African School Certificate Biology examination in some selected secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The study was based on three hypotheses, two of which were accepted and the third was rejected. Those who were approved were:
1. Schools with a laboratory and appropriate science equipment outperform schools without a laboratory and appropriate science equipment in the West African school certificate biology examination.
2. Schools that use more laboratory and science equipment in their biology classes outperform schools that use less laboratory and science equipment in their biology classes.
3. Scientific equipment has a significant impact on student performance in the WASSCE Biology examination.
4. Laboratory adequacy has a significant impact on student performance in the WASSCE Biology examination.
The data for this study were gathered through the use of questionnaires and records of the West African school certificate biology examination results (2003-2010). According to the findings of the study, the availability and regular use of biology laboratory science equipment leads to improved performance of students in biology at the West African school certificate examination.
It was suggested based on the findings that”
1. Biology laboratories should be built in schools by the government/PTA, and funds should be provided by the government for the purchase of laboratory equipment.
2. Teachers should make every effort to hold practical classes for every practicable topic covered in the class. Students should be given some autonomy in the laboratory.
3. Practical note books or workbooks from S.S.1 to S.S.3 should be made available for marking as part of the practical examination in the WASC biology examination.
4. Graduate and NCE teachers should go into schools to teach. Their salaries and allowances should be paid on time. Teachers who are already in the field but are untrained should be put through a training program to improve their teaching methods.
5. The 6-3-3-4-system of education should not be interpreted as a change in subject matter.
1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND
Every human being possesses an element of curiosity; when combined with interest, this element of curiosity leads to an individual becoming involved in the act of inquiry.
However, the extent to which this act of curiosity develops in each individual part of science. An American scientist, James B.C. (1980), defines science as an interconnected series of concepts and conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation and are faithful to further observation and experimentation.
Oguntonade C.B. further defines science as rational inquiry motivated by a desire to explain the phenomena of human experience, adding that any claim to a satisfactory or acceptable discipline in general.
Regardless of one’s feelings about science, there is no doubt that it is here to stay as an important part of our well-being. As a result, it is important for any country to embrace science in its educational endeavors.
As Professor Babs Fafunwa correctly observed, “a nation that has overtaken the significant truism of science in our age has her own peril.” Science in our day and age has clearly become a necessary tool for good living, health, homemaking, and leisure, all of which contribute to national defense.
Biology for the certificate year a millennium text sees biology as a branch of science that deals with the study of living things; it can also be seen as a very important part of science that helps science fulfill the major role that science plays in the life and well-being of any nation.
Curriculum planets have become aware of the importance of biology as an integral part of science over the years and have attempted to give biology as well as other sciences proper attention in secondary school education; however, it is unfortunate that the teaching of biology as a subject in our secondary schools is more of a theoretical knowledge.
Indeed, no effort has been made to develop biology as a way of thinking or as a product.
One way biology teaching and learning can be viewed as a way of thinking; an attitude; or a product is by emphasizing the importance of the laboratory and, of course, the availability and use of the necessary science equipment in the school science laboratory.
Pinchas Tamir defines the laboratory as “a place where students engage in hands-on activities such as observations and experiments.” He goes on to say that a laboratory should be used not only to verify but also to find her investigation and enquiry.
This study on the “effects of the availability of laboratory science equipment on students’ performances in biology at the West African school certificate examinations (WASCE)” will attempt to provide a broad basis for the need to make the teaching and learning of sciences in general, and biology in particular, to be seen as a way of thought, attitude, or product.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of laboratory and science equipment availability on students’ performance in the West African school certificate biology examination. As a result, a survey of the problem served as the foundation for this study.
1.3 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE
It is also worth noting that educational planners in this country recognize the importance of science in the education of the country’s children. It is required that the teaching/learning of any science subject be conceived of as a way of thinking, an attitude, or a product. This increased emphasis on practical work in the teaching and learning of biology, as well as other sciences, will enable teachers and students alike to achieve the goal.
This research will be critical for curriculum designers, principals, science teachers in general, biology teachers in particular, parents/guardians, and students.
The study will help curriculum designers see the need for structuring the science curriculum in order to meet the nation’s desire of producing students who can live effectively in our modern age. This is precisely the goal of the 6-3-3-4 education system.
This study is significant for school principals, science teachers’ parents, and guardians because it will help them see the importance of having a well-equipped and effectively used laboratory.
It is critical to have good teachers in order to use the laboratory and science equipment.
A good teacher, it is said, makes teaching and learning look easy. The availability of laboratory and science equipment will motivate a good teacher to use them effectively.
The study will help students see the importance of developing their own creative thinking as well as their own manipulative skill or ability.
The net effect of these, however, is that the government stands to realize her long-desired goal of producing individuals capable of acquiring the appropriate skills, abilities, and competence, both mental and physical, which serves as an equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his or her society.
There will also be an increase in student success in the West African school certificate biology examination.
1.4 STUDY HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:
1. Schools with laboratories and appropriate science equipment do not perform better in the West African school certificate biology examination than schools without laboratories and appropriate science equipment.
2. Schools that use more laboratory and science equipment in their biology classes do not outperform schools that use less laboratory and science equipment in their biology classes.
3. Scientific equipment has no effect on student performance in the WASSCE Biology examination.
4. Laboratory adequacy has no effect on student performance in the WASSCE Biology examination.
1.5 TERM DEFINITION
A laboratory is a location that allows for experimentation, observation, and practice in a specific field of study.
Science equipment: In this context, it refers to all of the materials and supplies required for teaching and learning biology in secondary schools.
Experimentation: The process of carrying out an operation under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect of law, test or establish a hypothesis, or illustrate a known law.
Curriculum: The variety of institutional activities planned and provided for students by the local school or school system.
Inquiry: the search for scientific information.
Observation: A systematic, careful examination of events based on measurement.
Trained teacher: In the context of this study, he is the teacher who has completed an academic program in a science (biology) and educational principles and practice at a higher institution such as a College of Education or a University.
Untrained teachers: A teacher who has completed an academic program in any of the sciences but has not completed a course in educational principles and practice from a higher institution such as a college of education or a university.
W.A.S.C.E West African school certificate examination: an examination taken by all eligible final year students of a secondary school, i.e. S.S.3 in Nigeria and some other West African
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